5.1 The Industrial Revolution

AGE 8. The Time of Citizens and Steam Engines

5.1 The Industrial Revolution

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This lesson contains 29 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 2 videos.

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AGE 8. The Time of Citizens and Steam Engines

5.1 The Industrial Revolution

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after this lesson you are able to describe 2 causes and 3 consequences of the Industrial Revolution.
Lesson objective

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What is this lesson about?
An agricultural revolution in England led to a population growth. This growth triggered a high demand for clothes, which inspired entrepreneurs to invest money in new inventions for spinning. These inventions led to the industrial revolution in which machines in factories had taken over manual labour at home. Fossil fuels were burned to produce steam power. The promise of work in a factory brought people to the cities.

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Between 1750 and 1900, Europe and North America changed drastically. Steam engines began to be used to do work instead of manual labour, the locomotive was invented, bridges were built from iron and electric light was developed. These are just some examples of all the changes that occurred during the Industrial Revolution, a fast and radical change, that had its roots in Great Britain. A new era started: the Modern Age.

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2. The industrial revolution started in:
Great Britain

Slide 5 - Quiz

A world changing revolution

Before the industrial revolution, people lived in an agricultural-urban society. Work was done by manual labour or with the help of animal power such as oxen or horses. Craftsmen used their hands and tools to make products. This changed during the industrial revolution, when machines were invented to do the work. Ways of transportation also changed: before the revolution, people walked or used horses, boats or coaches to travel from one place to another, but during the revolution the steam locomotive made travelling and transporting goods easier and faster. Many more changes occurred, such as the change from candle light to electric light, changes in working conditions, health, social situations and living conditions. But what caused this revolution?

steam power would soon be used for transportation. 
  1. write down the title of this paragraph
  2. the first half of the text mentions 2 main areas that changed because of the  Industrial Revolution. 
  3. What other changes are mentioned?
(Can you now see how the title covers the content?)

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3. Before the industrial revolution, most people worked in:
rural areas

Slide 7 - Quiz

4. Which statement is true?

I. In Britain, an agricultural revolution occurred before the industrial revolution.
II. The agricultural revolution led to an abundance of food.
Both statements are true.
Both statements are false
Statement I is false and statement II is true.
Statement I is true and statement II is false.

Slide 8 - Quiz

Inventing new spinning machines

Inventors were inspired by this problem and entrepreneurs saw opportunities to make money. New inventions were made to hasten textile production more and more. One of the first of these machines was made by James Hargreaves and was called the Spinning Jenny. At first the Spinning Jenny was able to increase the spinning speed by eight times and eventually up to a hundred and twenty times.
It was a cheap device, but it still had to be run by hand and the threads broke easily. Richard Arkwright invented the Waterframe, a machine that worked on waterpower, so it did not need lots of manpower. The Waterframe was placed in a watermill, but this was also its downside, because the rivers did not always flow that well so it was not reliable. To solve this problem, a new energy source was further developed: steam power. These new machines needed coal to burn and England had plenty of this fossil fuel.

Top: Using the Spinning Jenny increased spinning speed multiple times. Wood engraving c. 1880.
Bottom: Interior of a cotton factory showing use of child labour (nineteenth century).

  1. write down the title of this paragraph 
  2. why were new inventions made?
  3. Which 2 inventions are mentioned? What problem did they solve?
  4. why was steam power further developed? 

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Slide 10 - Video

vertical motion
rotary motion

Slide 11 - Drag question

Steam power

The use of steam as a power source was not new. Though the ancient Greeks had made designs, it was never put to practical use then. In 1712 the first real steam engine was used to pump water from a mine. But it became popular for more industries after James Watt made an adapted version. Now the steam engine could operate a whole scale of different machines. Its rotary movement revolutionised industry.
Steam engines became so big that they had to be placed in factories. These big buildings first had to be built close to places with water and coal. The coal was burned to heat up water in order to produce steam. With the invention of the steam locomotive, these fuels could be transported to all different areas; this made it possible to build factories in many places, close to waterways for transport or in cities because of the workforce.

different steam engines, 1894. 
  1. Write down the title of this paragraph 
  2. Why did factories needed to be built near places with water and coal?
  3. How did the invention of the locomotive change this?
  4. What were the best locations to build a factory (and why)?

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5. The industrial revolution was boosted by the introduction of a new energy source, namely:
water power
steam power
sun power
wind power

Slide 13 - Quiz

Life in an industrial city (1)

The industrialisation did not just take place in Britain; Belgium was second and the United States, France and Germany followed. Our country was one of the last countries in Western Europe to industrialise. In all these countries industrialisation led to a decline in the agricultural work sector but to a growth in industrial and services, such as banking, education and transportation. There was not enough work in agriculture anymore and the use of machines led to a further decline in textile work at home. For millions of people the only option was factory work in the city. Because of this, the cities grew exceptionally. Cities such as Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham became leaders in the industrial revolution. Between 1771 and 1831, Manchester saw its population multiply by six. This process of growth in cities is called urbanisation.

 Inside a nineteenth century iron factory. Painting by Adolph Menzel (1875).
  1. Write down the title of this paragraph 
  2. What were 2 effects of industrialisation?
  3. Why did cities grow? (what is this called?)

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6. Which statement is correct?
The Netherlands was one of the first countries to industrialise.
Industrialisation led to a growth in the agricultural work sector.
Industrialisation led to urbanisation.
In the industrial cities, the wages were high.

Slide 15 - Quiz

Life in an industrial city (2)

The workers had to live close to the factories because they walked to work. There was a shortage in housing and because the wages were low, they could only rent a very small house in special worker neighbourhoods.The whole family had to share one room. Families with more than five children were normal. The furniture was simple, and most of the times there was not a good bed or kitchen and the walls were not well insulated. Rooms without windows were not an exception; the houses were cold in winter, damp and hot in summer. They were built close to each other, which made the streets small and crowded. Thieves, murderers and drunkards roamed the alleyways. Orphans and beggars had to live in dwellings in the backstreets. It was filthy because people had no toilets or clean water supply. They threw their waste on the streets. These open sewers and garbage piles attracted rats and other vermin. These animals and polluted water caused diseases such as Cholera and Typhus, killing countless people.

family living in a one room apartment
  1. This paragraph is just a summing up of bad living conditions of city workers. You might write down some key words.
  2. What was the effect of  bad hygiene in the cities?
The time period that encompasses a big part of the industrial revolution is called the Victorian era (1837-1901) in Britain. This period is named after Queen Victoria, who ruled the British Empire for 63 years. The British divide some parts of their history according to their rulers. After the Victorian era, the Edwardian era started (1901-1910).

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9. How did the Agricultural Revolution lead to the Industrial Revolution?
higher demand for products
agricultural surplus
steam engine developed
new farming techniques
new inventions needed
population growth

Slide 17 - Drag question

Families in the factories

The wages that labourers received were not enough to pay for rent and food. It was just barely enough to live in the city. For this reason, a family could only survive if the mother and children also worked. Children could not play or go to school to improve their knowledge or skills, so their situation could not improve. Men and women operated the machines, while children did work as chimney sweeps or had to crawl into narrow spaces in mines or under machines to pick up cotton.

19th century London was also a city of poverty, where millions lived in overcrowded and unsanitary slums. Wood engraving by Gustave Doré (1872).

  1. Write down the title of this paragraph 
  2. Why did whole families need to work?

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12. Were the statements below causes
 or effects of the Industrial Revolution?
Factories were built to house the big, new machines.
Entrepreneurs were willing to invest in new inventions.
Homeworkers could now work much faster than before.
The first machines led to unemployment of homeworkers.

growth of cities

population growth

Slide 19 - Drag question

1.  Drag and drop to finish this overview. Also check and correct your notebook.
candles / oil lamps
Modern Age
horses / walking
steam locomotive
agricultural urban society

Slide 20 - Drag question


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8. Now explain why the industrial revolution can still be considered a revolution despite the fact that it lasted about 150 years.

Slide 22 - Open question

10. Three reasons why the revolution started in Britain are written down below. Explain for each, why it contributed to this revolution:
1 There were a lot of natural resources:
2 Many harbours:
3 The population growth due to improvements in agriculture

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11. Why would the former colonies Britain had in America also have contributed to this industrial revolution?

Slide 24 - Open question

14. Look at the map . Why were these first industrial
cities built at the locations you see on the map?

Slide 25 - Open question

15. Look at the source. Give a short description in your
own words of the living conditions you see in the source.

Remember: here you practise to write proper answers in
correct English sentences.

Slide 26 - Open question

16. Look at the source Why would the owners of
factories and mines especially like to employ children?

Slide 27 - Open question

Slide 28 - Video


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