Core Paper B revision

Core Paper B revision
Element 7 - 12 

T - levels in Education & Early Years 

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Slide 1: Slide
MathematicsFurther Education (Key Stage 5)

This lesson contains 32 slides, with interactive quizzes and text slides.

Items in this lesson

Core Paper B revision
Element 7 - 12 

T - levels in Education & Early Years 

Slide 1 - Slide

Aims of the session 
By the end of the session, all learners will: 
- Engage in tutor led revision regarding some gaps in knowledge. 
- Participate in classroom based activities and quizzes. 
- Complete work sheets and practice exam questions for application support. 

Slide 2 - Slide

Element 7: Child Development
Theory recap 
Rudolf Schaffer & Peggy Emerson
- Researched babies for the first 18 months on their life.
- Regular and monthly visits took place.
- Reactions and PSED was monitored & how children develop attachments.
Asocial stage
0 - 6 weeks
Babies use facial representation to communicate
6 weeks - 7 months 
3 months + can be soothed by familiar adult. 
Specific attachment
7 months +
1 special person. Separation anxiety occurs & stranger anxiety 
Multiple attachment
10 months + 
Quick to develop attachments. Quality can vary
Social referencing merges this is when babies monitor the reactions of their parents and imitate. 
If the parents shows worry when the child falls over the child is more likely to show the same. 
Schaffer & Emerson were able to conclude that Bowlby's theory was not accurate, they were also able to proof the quality of adult response is just as important - 'quality time'.

Slide 3 - Slide

Element 7: Child Development

Robert Selman's 5 level framework 
Selman proposed a framework that outlines the different development stages that a young child or person will experience. His work was based on interviews on young people, for this reason some of this age ranges overlap.
Level 0 
Momentary physical interaction
3 - 6 years 
Children will play with anyone that is of convenience.
Level 1
One way assistance
5 - 9 years 
Unable to understand friendship works 2 ways. Children stay friends with those who may not be nice to them.
Level 2 
Two way fair weather co - operation 
7 - 12 years
Friends should always repay a favour. Friendship may end if one feels they are not receiving the same.
Level 3 
Intimate mutual sharing 
8 - 15 years 
Can become very generous. High levels of trust, can become jealous if someone has separate friends. 
Level 4 
Mature Friendship 
12+ years
Ability to understand and be considerate. Understanding you can have more than one friend. 

Slide 4 - Slide

Collaborate to understand the question 
In pairs work together to break down the 4 mark question. 

What is the question asking you ?

What is the age range in question ?

What would you consider writing in response?

Slide 5 - Slide

Henri Tajfel & John Turner
In group vs out group (social identity theory)
This theory is all about how perceive ourselves and self image and identity. 
They determined socialisation is often divided in to categories for young people based of specific interests or characteristics.
There are 3 stages. 
Stage 1 - Categorisation: Categorising in to friendship groups based on a specific trait or preferences often young people to understand concepts through comparison. 
Stage 2 - Social identification: Once a young person or child has identified their group, their behaviours start to resemble the same as those in the group. 
Stage 3 - Social comparison: Once an identity has been determined, they begin to create natural comparisons in order to maintain effective self image & self esteem.
The indirect impact ... 
Mental Health 
Social skills
Self - concept 

Slide 6 - Slide

How much can you recall?
Summarise everything you know and can recall about Jean Piaget?

You must do this from memory.

Slide 7 - Slide

Observation & Assessment 

Slide 8 - Slide

Which one of the following is a stage in Boud, Keogh and Walkers Model of reflection?
Reflective observation
Active experiment
Reflective process
Active conceptualisation

Slide 9 - Quiz

Understanding the planning cycle 
Observations and assessments are essential for tracking and monitoring progress, the planning cycle support the process of observations.
- Checklist observation 
- Snapshot 
- Free description (narrative) 
- Event / time sample.
THE EYFS 2024 & Development Matters 2023 will be used alongside to support. 

- Informing planning and feedback to colleagues. 
- Creating enabling environments 
- Sharing information 
- Adhering to policies and procedures (everyone has one)

Slide 10 - Slide

Can you answer the question?

Noah is aged 9 years and attends primary school. The primary school teachers
have identified, through formative assessment, that Noah is not making the
expected progress in handwriting.

Explain one way the formative assessment results can be used by the teachers
to support Noah’s progress in handwriting. 
[2 marks] 

Slide 11 - Slide

Peer assessment
Swap with the person next to you - Use the marking criteria below to peer mark for each other. 

• The teachers can use results from the formative assessment to identify Noah’s specific support needs (1), and then use this knowledge to devise strategies to help and support Noah’s progress with specific elements of handwriting (1).

• Assessment results are used to support the teacher to provide feedback to Noah’s parents/carers relating to Noah’s progress with handwriting (1), this will ensure that Noah’s parents know where Noah may need support at home to further aid progress with his handwriting (1).

Slide 12 - Slide

Observations & assessment beyond Early Years 
In FE college & 6th form and universities, teachers and lecturers work in numerous ways to collect evidence and observations to support their students. 
- We often monitor and schedule 1 - 1's in the first 5 weeks of the course and do mini assessments. (Numeracy & Literacy)
- Our obserations help make studnt referrals for exam access support. We often need evidence could be through our 'tutor observations'.
 - We aim to provide targeted feedback to individualise support.
- Assess perfomance / relevant knowledge. 
- Lecturers ensure standards of education is met. 

Slide 13 - Slide

Element 9
Reflective Practice

Slide 14 - Slide

Group Discussion 
There is debate over the advantages and disadvantages of selective education.

Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of selective education. 

Slide 15 - Slide

Selective Education 
A selective school is one that only allows students to enter on the basis of their examination results - also known as SATS (Grammer school). 
these schools using accommodate secondary education. 
Selective education is very divisive, its not everyone's preference.
Anyone in favour of selective education often promotes social mobility - individuals of certain social class

Slide 16 - Slide

Boud, Keogh & Walkers Model 
A model that was created in 1985 and uses 3 different stages of reflective practice. 

1. Experience - In this stage the individual begins to present feelings. If something has gone well or not so well and this then reflects their behaviour. 

2. Reflective Process - In this stage we begin to try and understand our feelings, reflecting on the process, considering ways to remove any obstacles. 

3. Outcomes - Looking at the situation again and aiming to use a new perspective to support this. 

Slide 17 - Slide

David Kolb's experimental cycle 
Experiential learning theory created in 1984, 
the concept of the theory is all about learning from 
experiences most often in the process. 

Kolb stated it was significantly important for
individuals to progress through the different 
stages of the reflective cycle in order to 
effectively learn from it.

The cycle can be started at any point however 
the sequence will always remain the same. 

Slide 18 - Slide

Graham Gibb's reflective cycle 
A reflective model from 1988.
The cycle promotes learning through 
repetition in attempt to improve 
each time.

The intention is to encourage a reflective 
process where the individual adds every time 
they use it. 

Slide 19 - Slide

Element 10
Equality & Diversity 

Slide 20 - Slide

The consequences of labelling young children and young people.

  • Can cause the individual to feel stigmatised which can lead to mental health issues. 
  • If a young person has been labelled it will influence how others see them (individual perceptions). 
  • Individuals often see the label before the person. 
  • Place a burden on parents. 

  1. Promoting a positive mind set for all children and young people is imperative, it helps them feel motivated and more determined. 
  2. Encouraging independence. 
  3. Increasing motivation 
  4. Creating a culture of achievement
Possible barriers that can occur and strategies to overcome them. 

  • Physical accessibility - physical barriers, this could include: the environment, SEND, the learning opportunities. 
  • Mental health issues  causing anxiety and withdrawn behaviour. 
  • Attitudes and expectations 
  • The curriculum - curriculum's are predetermined and can be subjective. 
  • Family background 
  • Socio - economic barriers - living conditions & location.

Slide 21 - Slide

Mia is aged 14 years and attends secondary school. Recently, her teachers
have become concerned about Mia’s mental health. She has become withdrawn
within school and prefers to spend break times alone.

Assess one way that Mia’s mental health could impact on her participation in

Slide 22 - Open question

Mia may not be conscious or aware of what is happening around her as she is preoccupied with her own thoughts (1). Mia may find it difficult to engage in small group activities within the classroom as she has not absorbed the information she needs to complete the follow-up activity (1), which would mean she may not benefit from engaging in learning during small peer group activities (1).

Mia is distracted by her personal worries and concerns and is unable to concentrate when the teacher is talking (1) this means she does not grasp an understanding of the topic (1), therefore Mia does not engage in class work because she is not confident in the teacher’s expectations or how to apply knowledge to the activity (1).

[3 marks] 

Slide 23 - Slide

All setting's have a vast range of policies that are created on the basis of different legislation. 
Prior to working with children, all practitioners will need to read and be aware of the different policies in place and the different procedures required to effectively meet the requirements.

Slide 24 - Slide

Element 11
Special Education Needs & Disability 

Slide 25 - Slide

Which one of the following is the final stage of acquiring additional language?
Advanced fluency
speech emergence
Intermediate fluency
Early production

Slide 26 - Quiz

The Principles of integration, equity and inclusion
Principles of inclusion 

  • A curriculum to meet the rights of children and young people.
  • The environment should be adapted and individualised. 
  • Extra adaptions and support with learning environments. 
Principles of integration 

  • Children and young people with SEND should be provided support to access the curriculum requirements.
  • Sucess of young people often depends on their environment. 
  • Reasonable adjustments are imperative.
Principles of equity
The curriculum should be holistic and well planned for. 
Providing equal opportunities through out. 
Good partnership working with parents. 
Understanding different and own cultures and personal views 

Slide 27 - Slide

The difference between the medical and social models of disability.
Medical Model 
Social Model 
Child is faulty
Child is valued 
Strengths and needs defined by self
Identifies barriers and develops solutions
Impairment becomes focus of attention 
Outcome - based programme designed
Assessment, monitoring programmes
Resources are made available 
Segregation & alternative services
Training for parents & professionals
Ordinary needs put on hold
Relationships nurtured
Re - entry if normal enough 
Diversity welcomed, child is included
Society remains unchanged 
Soceity evolves
in the 1980's a social model of disability was developed. The model encourages society to think about how people with disabilities can be included.

The intention is the child with SEND is not the one who needs to make the change. 

With the Disability discrimination act 1995 and the Equality Act 2010 the social model of disability has challenged society to remove barriers.

Slide 28 - Slide

Element 12 
English as an additional language

Slide 29 - Slide

Factors affecting language acquisition
Pro's & Con's 
  • Age & stage of development - Young people and older children often acquire another language quicker as they have already mastered linguistics for one language. A child under 4 have not fully mastered a language.
  • Personality - Children who are sociable are more excited to try something new. 
  • Cognition - This can vary for each child dependent on their abilities. 
  • Cultural background - Support at home can influence the development of language acquisition 
  • SEN - can make it more challenging for children and young people to acquire another language. 
  • Bilingualism - children who already have predetermined language will be more likely to learn a 3rd.

Slide 30 - Slide

How is EAL linked to PSED and communication?
Unequal proficiency 

When children demonstrate certain strengths and weaknesses. Some children will know reading left to right.
Some children may have good verbal communication but find it difficult to read & write.

Some children may have learnt the linguistics of their home language and therefore are now having additional English lessons for reading and listening. 

Try not to make any assumptions under you are aware of the child individually.
Difficultly understanding the curriculum.
Often children and young people who has studies in their own language will find it difficult to grasp technical terminology presented in curriculum's and learning for all ages. 
Both sequential and simultaneous language learners typically miss vocabulary.
Children and young people with EAL will struggle to read certain words. For example: providing a reception aged child with a work sheet about shapes would only work if you are able to physically show and explain this to them,
Negative attitudes and labeling. 
Often children who speak English as a second language experience some negativity, can be considered as a 'problem'.
Isolation from Peers
Difficulties comprehending

Slide 31 - Slide

Strategies to support children with EAL 
Lets collaborate a group mind map on how to effectively support EAL in education. 

For example: 1:1 translator. 

Slide 32 - Slide