French Revolution

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HistoryMiddelbare schoolhavo, vwoLeerjaar 2

This lesson contains 29 slides, with interactive quiz, text slides and 10 videos.

Items in this lesson

Slide 1 - Slide

Why France revolted
In 1789, a revolution tore France apart. Some causes had been building up for years. 
King Louis XVI was an absolute ruler.
  • He and his nobles lived in luxury. Nobles did not have to pay most taxes. For ordinary people life was hard. They had to pay most taxes. 
  • The Church supported the king. It told people to obey him as a ruler chosen by God. It, too, did not have to pay all taxes. Ordinary people had to give the Church part of their income as a tax. 
  • From 1770, there were many bad harvests, which pushed up the price of grain (and therefore the price of bread). The population rose, pushing bread prices up even more. Bread was the main food of the poor.
Lodewijk XVI (16e)

Slide 2 - Slide


Slide 3 - Video

The Three Estates
(de 3 standen)
All the people in the country belonged 
to one of the 3 estates.

An estate is a group of people 
you belong to from birth.
An estate is hereditary.

You can not easily 
change into 

Slide 4 - Slide

1e stand: geestelijkheid

Slide 5 - Slide

2e stand: de adel

Slide 6 - Slide

The Third Estate
The Third Estate representatives in the Estates General was made up mainly of professional people such as doctors, lawyers, bankers and rich merchants. Many third estate people were just as rich as nobles.

These rich people in the third estate are called: bourgeoisie
Most 3rd Estate representatives in the Estates General were bourgeois people. 
Farmers and poorly paid city workers did not have time or money to come to Versailles to join the Estates General meeting that lasted several weeks.

So, despite the fact that bourgois people were just as rich as many nobles, they lacked the same rights as nobles. 

Slide 7 - Slide

3e stand: boeren

Slide 8 - Slide

3e stand: burgers (stedelingen)

Slide 9 - Slide

3e stand: bourgeoisie

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  • In het 18e-eeuwse Frankrijk werden de mensen verdeeld in 3 groepen genaamd "standen"
  • 1e stand: de geestelijkheid
  • 2e stand: adel / aristocratie 
  • 3e stand: de rest, maar kan worden onderverdeeld in:
  •        - arme, ongeschoolde mensen: stadswerkers en boeren
  •        - rijke, goed opgeleide mensen: advocaten, bankiers,                       kooplieden, doktoren. Deze groep werd de bourgeoisie               genoemd
6.4 De Franse Revolutie

Slide 11 - Slide

De 3e stand was ontevreden.
Ze waren 93 % van de bevolking, maar hadden veel plichten en weinig rechten:
1e stand
2e stand
3e stand
bestuurlijke macht
belasting betalen

Slide 12 - Slide

Source A: A cartoon about the Three Estates, published in the 1780s.

Slide 13 - Slide

Which estates do the people in the source represent?

A : clergy B: nobility C: commons
A: commons B: clergy C: nobility
A: nobility B: commons C: clergy
A: nobility B: clergy C: commons

Slide 14 - Quiz

What do you think the stone on top of the figure lying on the ground is supposed to mean?

The stone symbolizes the taxes the third estate had to pay (which is a
heavy weight) and the first and second estate did not.

Slide 15 - Slide

Slide 16 - Video

in 1789 the king called for a meeting of the Estates-General.
He had run out of money and he wanted to ask the representatives of the 3 estates to agree to his plans to raise the taxes.
In May, 1200 representatives gathered in Versailles 
to listen to the king.

Slide 17 - Slide

The 3rd estate members wanted to make some radical changes though......
The meeting would lead to the start of the French Revolution

Slide 18 - Slide

How to vote?
This is when trouble started..
The Estates-General sat for several weeks in May and June 1789 but came to an impasse over the first item on the agenda: whether they should vote by estate, giving the first two estates an advantage, which was the King's choice, or vote all together, giving the Third Estate the advantage.

first estate:        300 representatives
second estate:  300 representatives
third estate:       600 representatives
1 vote
1 vote
1 vote
2 votes
1 vote

Slide 19 - Slide

The National Assembly and the Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789

Slide 20 - Slide

The National Assembly and the Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789
Grondwet (of constitutie)

Dit is de BASIS wet waarop alle andere wetten zijn gebaseerd.
Hierin staan de RECHTEN van de burgers (grondrechten)
Maar ook de PLICHTEN van de regering.
Ook de koning moet zich aan de grondwet houden. Zijn macht wordt dus BEPERKT

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Slide 22 - Video


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