This lesson contains 27 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 1 video.
Lesson duration is: 45 min
Overfishing is emptying the ocean, with 90% of fisheries already overfished. Illegal fishing is increasing this. This lesson explains about illegal fishing in relation to Antarctic and Patagonian Toothfish.
Items in this lesson
Slide 1 - Slide
Illegal toothfish poaching and how it is being tackled.
Slide 2 - Slide
Slide 3 - Video
Over 100 million tonnes of fish caught annually.
Slide 4 - Slide
UN estimates 90% of fish species overfished.
Two-thirds fully exploited
26% over exploited
10% healthy fisheries
Slide 5 - Slide
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.
They are stealing from these waters.
Slide 6 - Slide
Unreported means that a fishing vessel may have a license with an allocated quota for fishing a particular species, such as tuna, but then catches more than their quota states and they fail to report it.
Slide 7 - Slide
Unregulated refers to areas in the ocean where there may not be a quota or any regulations in place, either in that location or for the type of species.
Slide 8 - Slide
Toothfish are high value targets.
Slide 9 - Slide
Toothfish life cycle
This image shows the Toothfish life cycle:
Egg – develop 4-5 months.
Larvae = age 1 – 6 years old – up to 12cm long.
Juvenille 6-7 years old – 12 -18 cm long.
Sub adult – 7-8 years old approx - 80 -100 cm long.
Mature adult age 8 to 50 years old - 70cm to 2.2m.
Slide 10 - Slide
10% of Antarctic and Patagonian toothfish
are taken illegally.
Slide 11 - Slide
Why does overfishing have a bigger impact on slow developing species like toothfish?
Slide 12 - Open question
Illegal gillnets are used by poachers.
Slide 13 - Slide
International laws regulate fishing.
Slide 14 - Slide
Regional Fisheries Managment Organisations (RFMO)
These organisations are international bodies that help to regulate fishing.
Cooperation between different countries on the management of some highly migratory species is important.
Slide 15 - Slide
Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) was established 1982.
Convention covers an area equal to around 10% of the Earth’s surface.
Covers fisheries targeted in the area, these are currently Patagonian toothfish, Antarctic toothfish, mackerel icefish and Antarctic krill
Slide 16 - Slide
How and why do you think illegal fishing could continue in this region?
Slide 17 - Open question
Detecting and stopping illegal fishing.
Slide 18 - Slide
AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)
Locating a vessel can be done by monitoring AIS on a ships radar.
Shipping vessels are required by law to have on board an Automatic Identification System (AIS).
Slide 19 - Slide
Satellites allow fishing vessels to be monitored all over the world.
Which allows vessels to be tracked, even without their AIS switched on.
Image: Global Fishing Watch
Slide 20 - Slide
Law enforcement can chase down poachers and board them for inspection.
Inspection means taking a look at their log books, checking their registration documents, fishing license and what catch is in the ships fish hold.
Slide 21 - Slide
Interpol is an international police force involved in operations to monitor and coordinate the evidence required to arrest illegal operators, no matter where they are in the world.
Slide 22 - Slide
Why should we protect species like toothfish?
Slide 23 - Open question
How can IUU activity be detected?
Slide 24 - Mind map
How can we help protect toothfish?
Help to stop the demand for toothfish.
Help raise awareness about overfishing and the extent of illegal fishing operations.