Movies that Matter - Shadow Game EN (before watching movie) - v.a. vmbo-breed

Shadow Game
Eefje Blankevoort, Els van Driel, 2021
Lesson about refugees and asylum application
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This lesson contains 24 slides, with interactive quiz, text slides and 2 videos.

time-iconLesson duration is: 50 min

Introduction

Welcome to this preparatory lesson for the documentary Shadow Game (Eefje Blankenvoort & Els van Driel, 2021). During this lesson, your class will learn about film education and human rights in the broadest sense. Film is an excellent way of increasing young people's awareness of social issues. This lesson will open the eyes of students to human rights issues. This lesson is a preparation for the documentary Shadow Game. Every day, teenagers who have fled their war-torn country try to cross the European borders in search of protection and a better life. The documentary follows some of these boys on this dangerous journey, which sometimes takes months or even years. Do you have questions or comments about this lesson? Please feel free to contact us by emailing educatie@moviesthatmatter.nl or calling 020-2807612.

Instructions

Themes
  • Refugees
  • Asylum application
  • EU migration management
Structure of the lesson
This lesson is a preparation for watching the film and consists of three parts:
1) Introduction (+- 10 min)
2) Study the content (+- 20 min)
3) Migration policy (+- 15 min)

Objectives of this lesson
In this lesson you will learn:
  • That everyone has the right to seek asylum in another country if they are persecuted in their own country;
  • Why children flee and what dangers they face along the way;
  • What the EU-migration policy entails and its implications.
Method
  • The intention is described per slide. 
  • The lesson can be printed, including the notes per slide (see PDF in annex). In these notes you will find general, extensive information that will help you navigate through this lesson.
  • It is possible to work with 'devices in the classroom' in this lesson. You can turn this on or off by unchecking the box at the bottom of the screen of the lesson presentation.
  • There are hotspot buttons on the slides. Clicking on these will display (extra) information, a question or an instruction. As a teacher you can choose to read the information under the hotspot button with hat together with the pupils/students or to tell the pupils/students yourself. The information is therefore also included in the instructions for the individual slides.
Enjoy the lesson!

Items in this lesson

Shadow Game
Eefje Blankevoort, Els van Driel, 2021
Lesson about refugees and asylum application

Slide 1 - Slide

This preparatory lesson is part of the documentary Shadow Game (2021), made by Eefje Blankevoort and Els van Driel.

The lesson is divided into three parts:
1. Introduction (+- 10 min)
2. Content analysis (+- 20 min)
3. Migration policy (+- 15 min)
Introduction

Slide 2 - Slide

Introduction
In this section of the online lesson, the lesson objectives are described. Furthermore, the students will be activated to think about what they already know about fleeing your country.
Soon you will watch this documentary. In the film, the two Dutch filmmakers Eefje Blankevoort and Els van Driel follow ten young people as they flee to and through Europe. They hope to find shelter here.
Look at the filmposter of the documentary Shadow Game. 
What do you see? What do you think the movie is about?

Slide 3 - Slide

Introduction
Soon you will watch this documentary Shadow Game. Look at the poster of the film. Discuss the following questions with the students:
  • What do you see?
  • What do you think the movie is about?
Following, tell the students that in the documentary two Dutch filmmakers Eefje Blankevoort and Els van Driel follow ten young people who try to get to Western Europe through the Balkan countries or Italy. Some of these boys take months or even years to do this.

Further, tell the students that the filmmakers chose this picture for the poster because they did not want to portray 'the unaccompanied minor refugee' as a victim. Their idea is that the boy is actually looking powerfully into the camera and is strong, contrary to the much common portrayal of refugees.
Why do you think that the filmmakers wanted to make the documentary anyway?
The filmmakers followed the boys for three years. The making of the documentary was dangerous, emotional and complicated.

Slide 4 - Slide

Introduction
The filmmakers followed the boys for three years. The making of the documentary was dangerous, emotional and complicated.

Discuss the following question: 
  • Why do you think that the filmmakers wanted to make the documentary anyway?
Answer:  No documentary has ever been made that follows boys like these and see the world through their eyes. In addition, the documentary makers wondered if the rights of refugee children journeying alone are recognized by Europe.
 In this lesson you will learn:

  1. That everyone has the right to seek asylum in another country if they are persecuted in their own country; 
  2. Why children flee and what dangers they face along the way;
  3. What the EU-migration policy entails and its implications.

Slide 5 - Slide

Introduction
This slide shows the goals of the lesson. You can discuss these with the students.

In this lesson you will learn:
  1. That everyone has the right to seek asylum in another country if they are persecuted in their own country;
  2. Why children flee and what dangers they face along the way;
  3. What the EU-migration policy entails and its implications.
What do you know about..
fleeing?

Slide 6 - Mind map

Introduction
On this slide there is a word web for the students to use. The question is: what do you know about fleeing your country?

If the students are participating in the lesson with devices, they can fill in their answer online. If not, they can write it down or discuss it in class.

Examples of answers are asylum seekers, war, refugees, Refugee Convention, migration, etc. 
Content analysis

Slide 7 - Slide

In the second part of this lesson, three themes regarding fleeing and asylum issues will be discussed: Migration routes, and reasons for children flee unaccompanied. The dangers they face when traveling alone, and why these dangers exist. 
Refugee
Someone who leaves his or her country because they fear persecution by:
- their own government;
- others, for whom the government cannot or will not protect.
Legally, you are only recognised as a refugee if you are persecuted on one or more of the following grounds:
- Race or nationality;
- Religion;
- Belonging to a particular social or ethnic group;
- Political opinion.
Do you think that someone fleeing from climate change, such as tsunami or ongoing forest fires, will be recognized as refugee?

Slide 8 - Slide

Content analysis
This and the following slides explains the difference between refugees and asylum seekers. These concepts might have already popped up in the wordweb. While these concepts are often used simultaneously, there are notable and important differences.

Discuss the term refugee by clicking on the hotspot. For more information, see this website. 

Following, ask the students the whether they think if someone who is fleeing climate change, could be recognised as being a refugee. The answer will appear if you click on the hotspot.

Answer:
No, because someone will only be recognised as a refugee if they are persecuted on one or more of the following grounds:
- Race or nationality (for example Afghan refugees in Iran who risk being returned to Afghanistan);
- Religion;
- Belonging to a particular social or ethnic group (for example homosexual people in Uganda who risk being arrested);
- Political opinion (for example being politically active for the opposition party, which puts you in danger).

Even though climate change is increasingly becoming a reason for people to flee, it is not officially recognised as a ground for asylum (yet).


Asylum seeker
Someone who asked asylum (protection) in another country and is waiting for the decision of the immigration services. 
When someone's asylum application has been approved, they will get a residence permit. They can then stay in the country legally.

Slide 9 - Slide

Content analysis
This and the following slides explains the difference between refugees and asylum seekers. These concepts might have already popped up in the wordweb. While these concepts are often used simultaneously, there are notable and important differences.



Look at the list of countries from where children are fleeing.
Choose one country. Which migration route from this country to Europe would someone take?
- Algeria
- Nigeria
- Syria
- Afghanistan
- Sudan
- Guinea
- Ethiopia

Slide 10 - Slide

Content analysis
Look at the list of countries of origin and at the map with the students, and discuss the routes they think children use to flee to Europe. These migration routes are discussed further on the next slide.
What problems and dangers do you think the children fleeing these routes will encounter?

Slide 11 - Slide

Content analysis
This slide shows the different and most often used migration routes. Evaluate whether the students thought of all these routes, and then discuss the following questions:
  • What problems and dangers do you think the children fleeing these routes will encounter?
Examples of answers include: human traffickers, abuse, bribery, harsh conditions in refugee camps, closed borders, etc. In the next slides, the problems young people face will be highlighted further.
You will be watching a short video from a Dutch newschannel about refugees. The duration of the video is about 3 minutes. It is cut into two parts, and automatically stops playing.
Try to answer the following questions while watching the video: 

- Why do children have to make such a dangerous journey?

- How are, or can they protected from these dangers?

Slide 12 - Slide

Content analysis
Tell the students that you will be watching a short video from a Dutch newschannel about refugees. The duration of the video is about 3 minutes. It is cut into two parts, and automatically stops playing. You can turn on subtitles.

Before watching the video, discuss the questions on this slide by clicking on the hotspot. During the video, the students have to think about these questions. If necessary, have the students write down the questions so that they can review them during the video.

Slide 13 - Video

On this slide, you will be watching a short video about migration to Europe. The duration of the video is about 3 minutes. It is cut into two parts, and automatically stops playing. 

You can turn on automatically generated subtitles by clicking on the settings button.
Do you think that young people are indeed protected by these means? Why do you think that?
What were your answers to the questions:

- Why do children have to make such a dangerous journey?

- How are, or can they be protected from these dangers?

Slide 14 - Slide

Content analysis
During the video, the students focuses on two questions. Discuss their answers to these questions:
  • Why do children have to make such a dangerous journey?
  • How are, or can they be protected for these dangers?
Answers:
- The situation in the countries of origin of refugees is often so distressing that they cannot travel legally. They are therefore forced to go on a dangerous journey. So, they cannot just hop on a plane without valid papers, like a visa.
- According to international laws, everyone has the right to ask for asylum in Europe. Also, nobody can be sent back just like that, which is also called non-refoulement.

Following, discuss with the students whether they think that young people are indeed protected by these means. Also dicuss why they think that.

In the next slide you will watch the second part of the video.

Slide 15 - Video

On this slide, you will be watching the second part of the video about migration to Europe. The duration of the video is about 3 minutes. It is cut into two parts, and automatically stops playing. 

You can turn on automatically generated subtitles by clicking on the settings button.
After seeing the second part of the video, do you think the young people are indeed protected by these means? Why or why not?
What do you think about that?

Slide 16 - Slide

Content analysis
Discuss the following questions with the students:
  • After seeing the second part of the video, do you think the young people are indeed protected by these means? Why or why not?
  • What do you think about that? 
Answer:
No, these means do not protect the rights of children who are fleeing. The strict European migration policy, including the border control, puts the children in danger. Examples are pushbacks on sea, and violence used by guards at borders.

To really answer this question, it is important to know about EU migration policy. The following slides will give students an insight into this.

Migration policy

Slide 17 - Slide

Migration policy
This section dicusses the European migration policy by means of a image by a Dutch online paper, De Correspondent.

Because the concept of policy is fairly abstract, you could explain that this entails the manner in which something is being handled (in this case by the European Union).

Within the European approach to migration, countries can be divided into three groups.

On this map you can see the three groups (circles). These circles are explained in the following slides.

Slide 18 - Slide

Migration policy
This slide introduces the European migration policy, which will be further discussed in the following slides. 

Within the European approach to migration (the policy), countries can be divided into three groups. Look at the map which shows the three groups (circles).
Circle 1: Schengen zone
If you are a resident of a country that falls within this zone, you can travel freely within this zone without border checks.
The migration policy within this circle is about:
  • The distribution of asylum seekers;
  • The surveillance and control of the Schengen borders.

Slide 19 - Slide

Migration policy
This slide shows the first circle, the Schengen zone. Look at the hotspots together with the students by clicking on them. If necessary, point out the areas on the map.

Click here for more information about the Schengen zone.
Circle 2: Neighbouring countries
The second circle consists of countries that directly border the Schengen zone. Think of Turkey, Ukraine, Morocco, and Libya.
Migration policy in this circle is about accommodating or stopping migrants. For example:
  • The EU pays the Libyan coast guard to intercept boats with migrants;
  • The EU transfers a lot of money to Turkey for refugee camps (so-called 'accommodation in the region'). This is also called the EU-Turkey deal.

Slide 20 - Slide

Migration policy
On this slide circle 2, the neighbouring countries, will be discussed. Look at the hotspots together with the students by clicking on them. If necessary, point out the areas on the map.
Ukrainian refugees do not need to apply for asylum. They are given immediate protection in European countries. This is a temporary arrangement.
Ukraine
Ukraine is not a member of the Schengen zone but borders the European Union, and thus falls within the second circle of EU migration policy.

However, the European migration policy for people fleeing from the war in Ukraine is different from that for people from other countries.
What do you think of this? Discuss your answer with the classmate next to you.

Slide 21 - Slide

Migration policy
This slide separately discusses the policy regarding Ukraine. People fleeing from Ukraine do not have to apply for asylum, but are given protection immediately. Ask the students what they think about this, and make sure they discuss their answer with the student next to them. If there is enough time, you could ask them to share their answers with the group.

Click here for more information.

The migration policy in the third circle is about rules for the return of migrants to the country they came from by:
  • supporting projects in these countries which improve the situation there and give people fewer reasons to leave;
  • strengthen border control in these countries.
The third circle consists of countries where migrants come from, which are mainly countries in Africa. Asylum applications of people from these countries are often rejected.
Circle 3: Countries of origin

Slide 22 - Slide

Migration policy
This slide discusses circle 3, the countries of origin of migrants (from where they start their journey). Look at the hotspots together with the students by clicking on them.
Someone from Ukraine has fled the war and is crossing the border into Poland. How will this person be received in the EU?
Someone from Ethiopia has fled his country and ended up in Greece via a dangerous boat journey. While he wants to apply for asylum there, he is immediately transferred to Turkey. Why is this happening?

Slide 23 - Slide

Migration policy
On this slide, the students can be checked whether they have understood the explanation. This is done by means of two examples including questions:

  • Someone from Ukraine has fled the war and is crossing the border into Poland. How will this person be received in the EU?
Answer: Because this person is a refugee from Ukraine, special, temporary rules apply. This person will immediately receive protection in Poland, including shelter.
  • Someone from Ethiopia has fled his country and ended up in Greece through a dangerous boat journey. While he wants to apply for asylum there, he is immediately transferred to Turkey. Why is this happening?
Answer: Reason for his transfer is the EU-Turkey deal. People who arrive in Greece do not get the opportunity to ask asylum because of this deal. They will immediatly be returned or transferred to Turkey without having the opportunity to apply for protection in an European country.

Is it still not completely clear? See if you can answer additional questions based on previous slides. For more information on migration policy, the following websites might be useful:


You are now fully prepared to watch the documentary Shadow Game!

Slide 24 - Slide

Thank you for taking this preparatory lesson from Movies that Matter Education! The students are now fully prepared to watch the film Shadow Game.