1.4 - the respiratory system

The respiratory system
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BiologieMiddelbare schoolvwoLeerjaar 2

This lesson contains 43 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 3 videos.

time-iconLesson duration is: 40 min

Items in this lesson

The respiratory system

Slide 1 - Slide

at the end of this you can:
  • Name the different parts of the respiratory system,

  • Explain the function of the mucous layer inside the respiratory system,

  • Name the differences between inhaling through the nose and mouth and explain why breathing through your nose is healthier

  • Give the position the uvula and epiglottis during breathing, swallowing and chocking

  • Name the features and functions of the windpipe and bronchi and cartilage tissue.

  • Explain how gas exchange takes place inside the alveoli using the terms oxygen, lung capillaries, carbon dioxide

  • Explain in which 2 ways the form of the alveoli contributes to rapid gas exchange.

Slide 2 - Slide

Short summary 
Respiration is a form of combustion (verbranding) that happens in our cells. 
Respiration creates energy. 

Our cells need Oxygen and Glucose for respiration to happen. 
Oxygen we take from the air. 
Glucose we get from eating.

The waste products (combustion products) are: Carbon dioxide and water

Slide 3 - Slide

Cells respire more during exercise, because you need more energy.

Inhaled air contains:
  • more oxygen used to create energy.
  • less carbon dioxide than exhaled air.
Exhaled air contains:
  • more carbon dioxide produced as a waste product of energy production.
  • less oxygen as it has been used in respiration

Slide 4 - Slide

The parts of the respiratory system and their functions

Slide 5 - Slide

The nasal cavity and oral cavity
When you breath the air comes in through the  nasal cavity or oral cavity.

The nasal cavity is a large, air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. 

In the front part of the nasal cavity are the nasal hairs, they trap larger dust particles. 

Slide 6 - Slide

Check out the picture for all the parts!
The walls of the nasal cavity are covered with the nasal lining, which has mucus-producing cells (cells that produce mucus, slijm).
--> This is also called the mucous membrane.

The mucus moistens the air that you inhale. 

Under the nasal lining are a lot of small blood vessels that keep the nasal lining warm. This also warms up the inhaled air. 

Slide 7 - Slide

So the nasal hairs capture the big dust particles. 
Smaller dust particles and germs stick to the mucus of the nasal lining. 

Small hairs called cilia sweep the mucus towards the back where it gets swallowed.
(you will see this in the video on the next page).

Slide 8 - Slide

Slide 9 - Video

The olfactory system
The air we inhale gets checked by the olfactory system. This helps you smell and it warns you if it contains any smelly gasses that may be dangerous.

  • The olfactory system is located in the roof of the nasal cavity

    Slide 10 - Slide

    Which one holds onto the smaller dust particles you inhale?
    Olfactory sytem
    Nose hairs
    Ciliated cells

    Slide 11 - Quiz

    What is the olfactory system used for?
    The exchange of gas
    Clearing the nasal cavity of dust particles
    Used for the sense of smell
    Clearing the bronchiole of dust particles.

    Slide 12 - Quiz

    What is the function of cilia?
    Sweep dust particles and other irritants to the back of the nasal cavity
    Sweep snot to the back of your nasal cavity
    Make mucus to catch dust particles
    Sweep dust particles to the front of your nose

    Slide 13 - Quiz

    Oral cavity
    When you breath through your mouth the air is not cleaned, warmed or moistened as much. Your sense of smell is less good then too. 

    Breathing through your mouth is healthier than breathing through your mouth. 

    Slide 14 - Slide

    Name 4 short reasons why breathing through your nose is healthier than breathing through your mouth

    Slide 15 - Open question

    After the nasal cavity and oral cavity air passes the pharynx.

    The pharyx is where the path taken by your food crosses the path taken by the air you breath.

    Slide 16 - Slide

    1. When you breath the uvula and epiglottis are open. This way air can go straight into the windpipe. 

    Slide 17 - Slide

    2. When you swallow the uvula and epiglottis are closed. This way food can not get into the nasal cavity or windpipe. 

    Slide 18 - Slide

    3. When you choke the uvula and epiglottis did not close properly and food gets into your windpipe. 

    Most of the time you can cough (hoesten) the food back up.

    Slide 19 - Slide

    Slide 20 - Video


    Slide 21 - Drag question

    The larynx or voicebox is located between the pharynx and windpipe. The larynx contains the vocal cords (stembanden).

    You can feel the larynx on the outside of your throat as the Adam's apple. 

    Slide 22 - Slide

    The windpipe or trachea is a hollow tube connected to the lower part of the larynx. 

    The wall of the windpipe has horse-shoe shaped rings, called the cartilage rings (kraakbeen ringen). They make sure the windpipe is always open and doesn't collapse. 

    The cartilage rings don't fully close in the back, this is for flexibility. 

    Slide 23 - Slide

    The windpipe splits into two branches called the bronchi, one to each lung. 

    The bronchi also have cartilage rings in the wall. 

    The bronchi split into even smaller branches called the bronchioles. 

    The bronchioles are too small for cartilage rings, they have small muscles in the walls. 

    Slide 24 - Slide

    The larynx contains the ...?
    Vocal cords
    Cartilage rings
    Adam's apple

    Slide 25 - Quiz

    Why are the cartilage rings horse-shoe shaped?
    For breathing
    For flexibility
    for respiration
    to make it stronger

    Slide 26 - Quiz

    The alveoli are located at the end of the bronchioles. 

    This is where gas exchange (gaswisseling) happens.

    The place where Oxygen goes to the blood and Carbon dioxide to the lungs. 

    Slide 27 - Slide

    The alveoli are surrounded by tiny blood vessels (aderen), named the lung capillaries. 

    Blood flowing to the alveoli is oxygen poor (zuurstof arm) and carbon dioxide rich ( CO2 rijk) (blue).

    Blood flowing from the alveoli is oxygen rich (Zuurstof rijk) and carbon dioxide poor (CO2 arm) (red)

    Slide 28 - Slide

    The walls of the lung capillaries and alveoli are extremely thin (1 cell layer).

    The surface area (het oppervlakte)  of the alveoli is really big. This means gas exchange can happen at many places. 

    Because of the thin walls and the big surface area, gas exchange can happen very fast!
    (there are about 300-500 million alveoli's in your lungs)

    Slide 29 - Slide

    Gas exchange 
    1) Oxygen comes from the air we inhale into the alveoli -> Oxygen goes from alveoli through the wall into the blood of the lung capillary -> blood brings Oxygen to all the cells in the body. 

    2) Blood brings Carbon dioxide from cells to the lungs -> Carbon dioxide goes from blood through the walls into the alveoli -> We breath out the Carbon dioxide.

    Slide 30 - Slide

    The walls of the windpipe, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli are covered with a mucus lining.


    Cilia are constantly sweeping the mucus back up towards the pharyx where it is swallowed.

    Slide 31 - Slide

    Slide 32 - Video

    Oral cavity
    Nasal cavity

    Slide 33 - Drag question

    Put the organs in the correct order
    Air enters the body
    Gas exchange
    Nasal cavity

    Slide 34 - Drag question

    Blood with a lot of Oxygen
    Blood with Carbon dioxide 
    one cell layer thick
    lung cappilaries around the alveoli

    oxygen goes into the red blood cells

    Carbon dioxide goes into the air

    Slide 35 - Drag question

    What is the main purpose of the alveoli?
    Transfer oxygen to and remove CO2 from the blood cells
    To trap dust in the lungs
    To make your voice go high When inhaling helium.
    To transfer blood.

    Slide 36 - Quiz

    how thin are the walls of the alveoli?
    1 mm
    1 cell
    the same as a nose hair
    10 cells

    Slide 37 - Quiz

    Blood that comes from the lungs is ..
    Oxygen rich and Carbon dioxide poor
    Oxygen rich and Carbon dioxide rich
    Oxygen poor and Carbon dioxide rich
    Oxygen poor and Carbon dioxide poor

    Slide 38 - Quiz

    Blood that comes from the cells is...
    Oxygen rich and carbon dioxide poor
    Oxygen rich and Carbon dioxide rich
    Oxygen poor and Carbon dioxide rich
    Oxygen poor and Carbon dioxide poor

    Slide 39 - Quiz

    Explain how gas exchange takes place inside the alveoli using the terms oxygen, lung capillaries, carbon dioxide

    Slide 40 - Open question

    Explain in which 2 ways the form of the alveoli contributes to rapid gas exchange.

    Slide 41 - Open question

    Was this lessonUp helpful?
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    Slide 42 - Poll

    Write down questions or topics you want me to answer or spend more time on in class

    Slide 43 - Open question