This lesson contains 16 slides, with text slides and 1 video.
Lesson duration is: 50 min
Items in this lesson
Slide 1 - Slide
One, Development may be due to expanding short-term memory capacity. Two, cognitive development may be due to expanding use of strategies. Now we consider a third possibility, that cognitive development reflects more complete, organized, and accessible knowledge-knowledge stored in long-term memory.
Memory performance is highly dependent on the developing knowledge base.
Slide 2 - Slide
Knowledge can be broadly categorized as being one of two types; Declarative Knowledge, which is knowledge about the world, the knowledge that something is the case, and Procedural Knowledge, which is knowledge about how to do things.
Many distinctions between procedural and declarative knowledge exist.
Slide 3 - Slide
Procedural knowledge typically starts as declarative knowledge.
In other words, learning how to do something sometimes begins as a verbal description of the procedure.
The movement from a declarative representation of a sequence of actions to a single procedure is known asProceduralization.
Slide 4 - Slide
A concept is a mental representation of category related items
Concepts help us to organize our experience by allowing us to group similar things together into categories
Slide 5 - Slide
~ In contrast to the rule-based perspective, other approaches suggest that we make judgements about concept membership based on similarity
~ Prototype theory suggest that people classify concepts on the basis of resemblance rather than by defining features.
~ Prototypes are mental averages of the many instances of the concept previously encountered in the world.
Slide 6 - Slide
Networks of Concepts
~ Our conceptual understandings are related to each other in long-term memory. One conception of how concepts are organized is semantic networks.
~ Concepts are nodes in the semantic network, with links between the nodes specifying the association.
~ Large networks of associations are associated with each node, with many of the associations based on personal experience.
Slide 7 - Slide
~ The associations between nodes are particularly important since activation of any particular part of the network results in Spreading Activation to parts of the hierarchy that are "close" and highly associated with the activated concept.
~ Activating some content can make it easier to understand related material.
Slide 8 - Slide
Slide 9 - Slide
Connectionist Approach: Neural Networks
~ In contrast to hierarchically organized semantic networks, the neural network approach suggests that categorical information is represented in multiple layer nets with numerous nodes per layer and the most significant part of the representation is in the connections between units of information.
~ Neural networks have two basic components
1. First, units of information called "nodes" can be activated at various levels
2. In neural networks involves the connection between nodes
Slide 10 - Slide
~ Could you describe where you live to your classmates? As you try to do so, you would likely access mental pictures, or images, from your long-term memory.
~ Allen Paivio proposed the dual-coding model to articulate the difference between images and other forms of knowledge.
Slide 11 - Slide
Slide 12 - Video
~ Stephen Kosslyn and his colleagues have summarized research evidence supporting the psychological reality of mental imagery.
~The amount of time needed to recognize the same figure as the "same" was a linear function of the number of degrees of rotation required to make the figure parallel to the original figure.
Slide 13 - Slide
~ Not all types of knowledge can be captured by the knowledge representations we have already discussed.
~ Sometimes specific units of information commonly co-occur in particular situations, forming larger chunks of knowledge best described as Schemas, which are generalized knowledge about objects, situations, or events
Slide 14 - Slide
Text Structure Schemas
~ Students develop schemas for recurring intellectual tasks.
~Both narrative and expository text structures have been identified.
~ Narrative- Stories, has a structure: grammar. A story has a setting and event structure, which is composed of episodes.
~ Expository- typically follows one of five formats: cause and effect, compare and contrast, description, problem and solution, and sequence. Students can learn to recognize the text structure by analyzing the signal words contained within the text.
Slide 15 - Slide
~Situated Cognition - is the knowledge we gain by participating in our social world and learning from our social and cultural context.
~ Distributed Cognition- is the theory that knowledge lies not only within the individual but in the individual's social and physical environment.