Literature- theory

18th - 19th ct literature
- theory: context and characteristics
- books: choice of 10 --- > see Classroom

Testweek: essay
argue for or against a statement relating to your book using your knowledge of the literary period. 
- essay structure - language - literary analysis 
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EngelsMiddelbare schoolvwoLeerjaar 4

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Items in this lesson

18th - 19th ct literature
- theory: context and characteristics
- books: choice of 10 --- > see Classroom

Testweek: essay
argue for or against a statement relating to your book using your knowledge of the literary period. 
- essay structure - language - literary analysis 

Slide 1 - Slide

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Victorian and romantic
- science
- nature
- class society
- individualism
- spirituality/ soul/ ethics/ mankind
The focus of these themes and the way in which they are expressed changes over time

Slide 2 - Slide

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18th century

The Monk: A Romance, Matthew Lewis, 1796.

The mysteries of Udolpho, Ann Radcliffe, 1794

The Castle of Otranto, Horace Walpole, 1764

Robinson Crusoe, Daniel Defoe, 1719
Gulliver’s Travels, Jonathan Swift, 1726

19th century

Jane Eyre, Charlotte Brontë, 1847

Wuthering Heights, Emily Brontë, 1847

Pride and Prejudice, Jane Austen, 1813

Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde, 1893

Frankenstein, Mary Shelley, 1818/ 1831

Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Robert Louis Stevenson, 1886

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18th century
scientific discoveries and philosophers: Age of Reason / Enlightenment
previously in ignorance, now rational
this anything was possible through reason resulted in confidence in individual
meant a boom in Britain’s economy
international trade and colonisation made Britain rich!
first to enter industrialisation: impact on day to day life: 
trade and industry overtook agriculture and people moved to cities
nobility not only ones in power anymore!
you could prosper by investing and trading > middle class (bourgeoisie)
through marriages rise to nobility
new social class became influential:
hard work and virtuous living new ideals
importance of upbringing and role of mother
new role women: domestic, still important to marry rich
still many underpaid uneducated workers > contrast!

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18th century- literacy
cities centre of intellectual life: ideas spread more widely and quickly
new technologies:
printing cheaper and faster and quicker transport: ideas spread easier
pamphlets and journals (with news, essays, stories, satire, poetry) to large parts of society
new form of literature: the novel
describing lives of ordinary people with ordinary problems
recognisable to many!
travel accounts, but also less exotic
reflect day to day life in contrast to before (heroes and monarchs)
truthful, realistic and yet exciting, preferably with moral (sometimes even satire)
examples: Robinson Crusoe, Gulliver’s Travels, Tom Jones, Pamela

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Romantic Period (1798-1837)

started with publication of Lyrical Ballads (by Wordsworth and Coleridge) and ended with ascension of Queen Victoria
earlier than periods with similar name in Europe
one of most important literary periods in English history!
product of socio-economic setting:
steam engine > 2 industrial revolutions (from agricultural to industrial and rural to urban)
French revolution: new ideas and attitudes (shout for freedom and rejection of authority)
in other words: this movement reacted against the Age of Reason!
Great period for poetry, but also some prose
novels mainly about earlier times (18th century)

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Characteristics of R.L
focus on power and grandeur of nature
emotion over intellect
imagination over logic > as countermovement for Age of Reason
(also the mysterious and frightening!)
originality (or inspiration/intuition) was prized!
interest in history (mostly mediaeval), celebrating times before industrialisation
fascination with exotic and unfamiliar
anti-authoritarian and anti-establishment
common people could be noble if close to nature
much poetry about children 
(uncorrupted by knowledge, innocent, close to nature) 

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Romantic Poetry
Two generations of Romantic poets:
criticised social conventions and society is evil. supported ideals of freedom and equality of French Revolution.
simple language, wanted to combine supernatural, mysterious and fantastical images and tones with everyday themes
leading poets: Wordsworth, Coleridge (Rime of the Ancient Mariner), Southy
true incarnation of Romantic revolt. Total rebellion without truce, affirmation of the individual, truth and beauty
more complex versifications
leading poets: Keats, Percy Shelley, Lord Byron 
(all lived short lives by ‘living on the edge’)

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Een gedichtenactiviteit doen
Romantic prose
Most important novelists: 
Mary Shelley (Frankenstein), 
Bronte sisters (after period, but in mood and style), 
Austen (books about Age of Reason), 
Sir Walter Scott (historical novels), 
Gothic novel is typically a Romantic form: 
famous example: Frankenstein
first already before Romantic period: Castle of Otranto, became more popular during Romantic Period
characteristics: sinister settings, extreme landscapes (nature, weather, etc) and their effects on your mood/circumstances, omens, supernatural elements, fear

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In fragmenten uit de boeken laten highlighten wat de kenmerken zijn
Victorian period 1837-1901/1914

true change into industrialised society
large factories and automatisation 
lack of raw material in Britain > trade internationally in British Empire
economic growth meant both great fortune and poverty:
factory owners and entrepreneurs were wealthy: new aristocracy (bourgeoisie) and traditional upper class became less important
many people moved to cities: overcrowded and lack of housing with miserable working conditions. Depopulation of rural areas meant food shortages.
Peak was Great Exhibition in 1851
showing off with capabilities of human spirit and creative thinking
uprise of socialistic movement: power for the workers
start of Labour Party 1893
major discussion: Darwin’s evolution theory
conflict between science and religion

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plaatjes laten zien
Ook stripjes over aotmatisation
Misschien film? Charlie Chapplin The Kid/ iets met die frabriek? Of Buster Keaton die in zo'n grote machine iets doet?
Victorian Literature
emotions made way for more rational style, innovative works
novel became most popular form
made available for large parts of society in serial form: cheap and accessible
reasons why it became more popular:
novel intended for middle class > picked up and approved by Victorian bourgeoisie
no tradition yet, so could be adapted to Victorian age
allow to escape reality, perfect for chaotic society
relatable for people: real life situations
proposed solutions to complex issues

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Victorian Novels
Characteristics of novels:
standard middle class behaviours and habits > relatable
popular topic: adaptation of individual to society
emphasis on character development, including climbing social ladder
principle character shows weakness, but still decent and reasonable Victorian
Victorian novels now can be big, but were not like that then due to serialisation
serialisation meant constant excitement and suspense
nostalgia (because present day was bad..)
Famous novelists:
Charles Dickens (Bleak House is first detective novel, Hard Times about factory life)
George Eliot (woman writer, Middlemarch)
Thomas Hardy (Jude the Obscure)
Oscar Wilde (dandy, shocking, The Picture of Dorian Gray)

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Age of Reason:
all about rational and knowledge
often satirical or moralistic
start of novel with still stock characters and logical plots
truthful, hardly fantasy
already more about normal people

Victorian age:
questioning religion (Darwin)
social turmoil
feminism and realism
individualistic change and character development
serial novels, mainly about middle class

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