Chapter 2: Cities and their function

Chapter 2: Cities and their functions

In this chapter we focus on different urban city models, the history of cities and the different functions of cities nowadays
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Slide 1: Slide
AardrijkskundeMiddelbare schoolhavo, vwoLeerjaar 3

This lesson contains 21 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 5 videos.

time-iconLesson duration is: 200 min

Items in this lesson

Chapter 2: Cities and their functions

In this chapter we focus on different urban city models, the history of cities and the different functions of cities nowadays

Slide 1 - Slide

Section 2.1. History of cities

Learning goals:
  • Explain the development of cities, in the past and in the present;
  • Describe the different functions cities have. 
  • Explain the effects of globalization on cities. 

Because of the first agricultural revolution people moved to places where to could live together in villages. 
Within these societies people got different tasks, some people responsible for agriculture, others for organizing the community.

Slide 2 - Slide

People started to live in communities located in the Fertile Crescent. 

Because of the high production trade started.

Still now the site and situation of a certain place are important.

Slide 3 - Slide

This is the physical land where the settlement is built upon. 
Early sites were chosen to suit the needs of people. 
For example - Fertile soil for crops and enough fresh water to drink --> close to a river. 

Slide 4 - Slide

The situation of a settlement is the description of the settlement in relation to the other settlements and physical features around it. The situation of a settlement is the most important in determining whether it grows to become a large city or stays as a small town or village.

Slide 5 - Slide

Slide 6 - Link

Slide 7 - Video

Villages started to growth and became cities.

Cities can grow in two ways:
- Organic growth; growth because of the cities unique site which is unplanned
- Planned growth: a planned grow of cities

Old cities e.g. Paris show both types of growth.

Most cities in the US show proof of planned growth.

Slide 8 - Slide


Slide 9 - Slide

Urban land use model or Burgess model
This is a basic urban land use model based upon cities in the 1920s. 
The center here is the oldest part and the part where everybody wanted to live. These days we call it the CBD, hence the huge buildings in the image. 

Slide 10 - Slide

Slide 11 - Video

Industrial revolution

Starting in the UK around 1870/1880 the industrial revolution lead to urbanisation.

Why did the IR caused urbanisation?
Functions of cities
There is a clear division of functions a city can have. This is also visible in the Netherlands:
- The Hague: government
- Rotterdam: harbour
- Amsterdam: financial companies
- Delft: university

Slide 12 - Slide

Slide 13 - Video

2.2. Brussels: a city of political power
Learning goals:
- Explain why Brussels became an administrative centre
- Describe what functions Brussels fulfils as an administrative centre 
- Describe the modern history of Belgium

Belgium is a country with a complex structure; the country is divided in three "gemeenschappen" based on the three official languages (Flemish, French and German), but also in three (different) "gewesten" (Vlaanderen, Wallonië and Brussels). Every gemeenschap and gewest has an own parliament.

Slide 14 - Slide

Slide 15 - Video

The industrial revolution led to growth of the cities in Western Europe. Also Brussels became bigger as from the 20th century. Because of this expand the original seperate villages near Brussels became a part of Brussels itself.
Brussels wasn't only a city anymore but the surrounding villages became part of Brussels; as from then Brussels is a agglomeration.

People worked in the city centre of Brussels but lived in the neighbourhoods or suburbs on the edge of Brussels. Because of the rapid growth these suburbs had to be restored = rejuvenation.

Slide 16 - Slide

Why did the situation of working in the city centre and living in the suburbs caused traffic jams?

Slide 17 - Open question

Why do people sometimes call Brussels the capital of Europe?

Slide 18 - Open question

2.3. London: international financial centre
Learning goals:
- Explain how London became a financial centre;
-  Describe the characteristics and functions of a financial centre;
- Describe the effects of the Brexit on London

Slide 19 - Slide

Slide 20 - Video

Why did most Londoners voted remain in the Brexit voting?

Slide 21 - Open question