CH4 sec. 4.4 The Netherlands in 1848

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH4 The age of citizens and steam engines
The Industrial Revolution
sec. 4.4 The Netherlands in 1848
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Slide 1: Slide
GeschiedenisMiddelbare schoolhavoLeerjaar 2

This lesson contains 13 slides, with text slides.

time-iconLesson duration is: 50 min

Items in this lesson

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH4 The age of citizens and steam engines
The Industrial Revolution
sec. 4.4 The Netherlands in 1848

Slide 1 - Slide

Learning objectives
Main question: Which political changes occured in the Netherlands around 1850?
  • You can explain how the Netherlands was governed between 1815 and 1848.
  • You can explain why a new constitution was drafted in 1848.
  • You can explain what changed in the administration in 1848.
  • You  know the terms and dates of this section.

Slide 2 - Slide

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Different Dutch states

  • 1588-1795 Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
  • 1795-1806 Batavian Republic
  • 1806-1810 Kingdom of Holland
  • 1810-1813 Part of the French Empire
  • 1813-1815 Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands
  • 1815-present Kingdom of the Netherlands

Slide 3 - Slide

Kingdom of the Netherlands
1815 Battle of Waterloo > Napoleon defeated 

1814-15 Congress of Vienna
Victorious countries redrew map of Europe. 

They were conservative. Against new revolutionary ideas about freedom, equality and brotherhood.

Wanted a strong state north of France.

Slide 4 - Slide

Kingdom of the Netherlands
1795 Stadholder Willem V fled to England.

1813 Return of Willem VI.

1815 Kingdom of the Netherlands, ruled by king Willem I of Oranje-Nassau.
Included the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.

1830 Belgian Revolt. Belgium becomes independent.

Slide 5 - Slide

Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dutch economy of the first half of 19th century
  • agriculture
  • commerce
  • other non-industrial activities

No large scale industry yet. No class of poor factory workers, but many poor people.

Dependent on charity for food and clothing (churches and wealthy citizens). Government didn't help.

Slide 6 - Slide

Kingdom of the Netherlands
King Willem I wanted to revive economy
Infrastructure improved. 
  • canals dug
  • roads constructed
  • railroads built
1839 first steam train Haarlem-Amsterdam.

Second half of the 19th century the Netherlands modernised. First factories, more steam engines and better infrastructure.

Slide 7 - Slide

The liberals
1815 Kingdom of the Netherlands became a constitutional monarchy
King is limited by the rules of the constitution.

King Willem I (1815-1840) ruled as an autocrat. He was a conservative. Against political change (ideas about participation and freedom).

The kingdom was not a democracy.

Slide 8 - Slide

The liberals
The rule of king Willem I 
  • appointed and dismissed ministers
  • decided on laws without asking approval of parliament (Upper House and Lower House)
  • appointed the members of the Upper House
  • members of Lower House were not elected by the people, but by provincial administrators.
Many MPs were just as conservative as the king. Didn't wany any public influence.

Slide 9 - Slide

The liberals
Enlightenment and French Revolution had led to new political movement: liberalism

  • Represented the bourgeoisie (well-to-do citizens)
  • Fundamental rights (freedom of speech and participation in administration)

  • Economic freedom (capitalism), few rules and regulations
  • Government's only duty is to ensure safety.

Slide 10 - Slide

Constitution of 1848
King Willem II (1840-1849) was more modern than Willem I.

1848 Revolution broke out in France and in other European countries there were protests as well.

King Willem was afraid of violence and radical reform. Commisioned Thorbecke to draft a new constitution. Renewal of administration. King remained on the throne, but lost control.

Slide 11 - Slide

Constitution of 1848
Changes in revised constitution of 1848
  • Plans for new laws and expenditures on important matters had to be approved by parliament.
  • Governing was the ministers' duty and the minister was accountable (ministerial responsibility), not the king.
  • Not the king, but parliament (Upper and Lower House) checked ministers'  work.
  • Upper House members were no longer appointed by the king.
  • Lower House members were elected every four years by  a small group of rich men. They received the right to vote (limited suffrage).

Slide 12 - Slide

Get to work
What? See whiteboard.
How? Alone 
Help? Ask neighbour. Can't figure it out? Ask teacher. 
Time? Until the end of the lesson. 
Done? Learn terms and dates. Ask teacher. 

Slide 13 - Slide