4VWO - Refutation in essay

1 / 15
Slide 1: Slide
EngelsMiddelbare schoolvwoLeerjaar 4

This lesson contains 15 slides, with interactive quizzes and text slides.

time-iconLesson duration is: 45 min

Items in this lesson

Slide 1 - Slide

Lesson goals: 
- Learn what a counterargument & refutation is and how to use it in your essay. 
- In groups make a thesis statement & pro/con list for a new topic. 
- Write a PEEL paragraph and a paragraph with counterargument with refutation and hand in on itslearning.

Slide 2 - Slide

How many reasons do you need in your thesis statement to make it strong?

Slide 3 - Quiz

What does PEEL stand for?

Slide 4 - Open question

The counterargument
Counterargument = an argument / reason that works against the main argument of your essay. 

When you have provided a counterargument, you need to then disprove / refute the argument to show why it is not as strong as your main argument.

The counter-argument should be a way to strengthen your own claim, not make your readers doubt you!

Slide 5 - Slide

Counterargument & refutation
  • In your argumentative essay, you give 3 arguments in favour of your thesis, and your strengthen your claim by also providing 1 counterargument.
  • You must always refute your counterargument (provide a reason why this counterargument is, in fact, not true).

Slide 6 - Slide

Counterargument paragraph:
  1. Make your point - that supports your argument. 
  2. Provide counterargument.
  3. Refute the argument (show that it is not a good argument) and provide example
  4. Explain why this example disproves the counterargument.
  5. Link back to your argument / the next paragraph. 

Slide 7 - Slide

Linking words to introduce counterargument:
  • However
  • Nevertheless
  • On the other hand
  • One could argue ..., but ...
  • Although it is true that ..., it would be wrong to claim that ...

Slide 8 - Slide

COUNTERARGUMENT EXAMPLE: Mobile phones should not be banned in the class room because....
On the other hand phones can be extremely distracting for students and they can have a negative effect on their concentration levels. However, that does not mean that phone use should be banned in class in general. For example, teachers often create educational activities such as Kahoot! quizzes for their students as well as using them for research purposes without the students having to leave the classroom. These examples show that the use of mobile phones in the classroom improve the learning of students and allow them to access many more educational activities than if they did not have their mobile phones in the classroom. Banning mobile phones in the classroom would therefore have very negative consequences for students and teachers. 
Counter argument  - refute counterargument -  example to disprove - explanation to disprove - link

Slide 9 - Slide

How to think of a counterargument?
- Think of the pros and cons of a statement
- Make your thesis statement - what is your argument?
- Look at the pros and cons list to see which argument you can use against (to counter) your own argument. 

Slide 10 - Slide

School uniforms

Slide 11 - Slide

Breakout assignment - 8 mins!
* Think of pros & cons of having a school uniform 
* Write together a strong thesis statement - either for or against having a school uniform. 
* Have one person ready to type the thesis statement into lessonup when we meet back. 

Slide 12 - Slide

Thesis statement for or against school uniforms:

Slide 13 - Open question

Assignments to do: 
- Write a PEEL paragraph in support of the thesis statement and one paragraph with a counterargument & refutation and hand it in on itslearning. 
- Make sure to add your thesis statement to your paragraphs! 
- Complete vocab assignment on itslearning by Friday (if you have not done so already!). 

- Next lesson; intro paragraph, essay structure and think of essay topics!

Slide 14 - Slide

- Do not write "I think..." - it reduces the strength of your argument. 

- Use full words instead of contractions; don't = do not 

- Use formal language to lift the tone of your essay; want = would like 

Slide 15 - Slide