The heart and the cardiovascular system

The heart 
1 / 26
Slide 1: Slide
EnglishTertiary Education

This lesson contains 26 slides, with text slides.

Items in this lesson

The heart 

Slide 1 - Slide

  • Anatomy of the heart
  • Anatomy of Major Arteries
  • Anatomy of major Veins
  • Portal Vein
  • Minor and Major circulation 

Slide 2 - Slide

The heart itself is made up out of four chambers:
Left and right Atrium (top)
Left and right Ventricles (Bottom)

Slide 3 - Slide

Slide 4 - Slide

When we use the terms left and right in Anatomy we always reason from the patient's perspective.
In practice this means:

Left is Right and Right is Left

Slide 5 - Slide

Arteries and Veins
The heart's primary function is to pump blood throughout the body.
It does this through a series of connected tubes called:

 Arteries (s. Artery) and Veins (s. Vein)

Slide 6 - Slide

An artery is thick and made up of
several layers of cells.
It needs this because of the pressure 
the pumping of the heart puts 
on it's walls. 
This pressure can we measure to 
check blood pressure 

Slide 7 - Slide

The direction of blood flow in arteries and veins is  opposite of eachother.
Arteries always deliver Blood from the heart to an organ


Slide 8 - Slide

The Major Arteries
The major arteries in near the heart 
are the:
Pulmonary Artery
The Aorta

Slide 9 - Slide

Pulmonary Artery
The pulmonary artery delivers blood towards the lungs. 

This blood is low in oxygen

(one of the few arteries to deliver low oxygen blood)

Slide 10 - Slide

The word pulmonary means anything related to the lungs.
Such as 
Pulmonary system
 Pulmonary disease
Pulmonary embolism


Slide 11 - Slide

The Aorta
The Aorta is the largest artery in the body and delivers blood everywhere else.
The Aorta leaves the heart from the left ventricle and the blood it carries is high in oxygen.
There are many branches of the aorta that have different names, we will go through the largest of them.

Slide 12 - Slide

Aortic Branches
The aorta leaves the heart upwards and 
curves around the heart. This curve is named
the Aortic Arch.
In the aortic arch it branches off in the left- and right
carotid artery
The Carotids bring oxygenated blood towards the brain.
Afterwards the aorta goes downwards,
which is named Descending Aorta.

Slide 13 - Slide

Abdominal Aorta
Towards the middel of the body the Aorta is now named the Abdominal Aorta.
The abdominal aorta can aneurysm, meaning the walls can weaken and swell and it can burst. 
This is called a "triple A" or "AAA" in the medical field.
Generally patients complain of stomach/abdominal pain and show symptoms of major hemorrhage

Slide 14 - Slide

Abdominal Aorta
Triple A Patients generally bleed out within minutes. This is because the Abdominal Aorta delivers blood to all major organs in the abdomen.
Each of these arteries are named for the organ they are connected to.

Slide 15 - Slide

Abdominal Aorta

Slide 16 - Slide

Eventually the aorta branches into two femoral arteries (femur = upper thigh bone) and they continue through towards your toes.

Slide 17 - Slide

The capillaries (s. capillary) are the smallest possible blood vessels we have. 
They are so small their wall is comprised of only 1 cell layer thick
This makes it possible for the blood to give off all kinds of chemicals and gasses to the cells of the organs, most notably ofcourse switching oxygen for carbondioxide.

Slide 18 - Slide

From the capillaries the blood returns in bloodvessels named veins. These generally have thinner walls and contain extra valves inside the blood vessel.
The valves are there to prevent back-flow,
because the pressure inside the veins is 
so low they can't actually push all the blood 
Veins always run from and organ to the 
heart, with one notable exception.

Slide 19 - Slide

Portal Vein
the portal vein is a very special blood vessel as it has no direct connection to the heart.
It runs from the digestive system to the liver.

Slide 20 - Slide

Slide 21 - Slide

Two circles
There are two different circulations going on in the body. 
The small (or minor) one
Of which is the goal to oxygenate the blood.

Therefor it runs from the heart to the lungs, through the pulmonary artery and veins.

Slide 22 - Slide

Two circles
The other is the large one (Major) which runs from the heart to the rest of the body.
It's goal is to deliver oxygen.

Slide 23 - Slide

Oxygen or no Oxygen
The blood in arteries of the major circulation carry oxygen, because it's goal is to deliver that oxygen.
The blood in the veins of the major circulation carry no oxygen, but carbondioxide.
Because it's goal is to return the blood to the heart.

Slide 24 - Slide

Oxygen or no Oxygen
The blood in the arteries of the minor circulation carry no oxygen, because it's goal is to deliver the blood to the lungs for oxygenation.
The blood in the veins of the minor circulation carry oxygen, as it has just returned from the lungs and is now oxygenated.

Slide 25 - Slide

Slide 26 - Slide