MMR22 P1W9: Sentence Structure & Word Order

WELCOME!!
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Slide 1: Slide
EnglishVocational Education

This lesson contains 38 slides, with interactive quizzes and text slides.

Items in this lesson

WELCOME!!

Slide 1 - Slide

Slide 2 - Slide

How do you feel about your progress?
ūüėíūüôĀūüėźūüôāūüėÉ

Slide 3 - Poll

FEEDBACK

Slide 4 - Slide

The Sentence
A sentence is a word or usually a group of words. A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a :
  1. full stop,
  2. a question mark,
  3. an exclamation mark.

Slide 5 - Slide

Types of Sentences (according to form)

  1. Simple sentences  (enkelvoudige zinnen)
Janet is a nice student.

   2. Complex sentences (samengestelde zinnen)
Janet is a nice student, but her sister is even nicer.
If I have time, I will certainly help you with your project.

Slide 6 - Slide

Types of sentences (according to meaning)
1. Declarative sentences   (mededelend)       -> She speaks English. (+)
                                                                                           -> She does not speak English. (-)
2. Interrogative sentences   (vragend)            -> Do you speak English? (+)
                                                                                           -> Does she not speak English? (-)
3. Imperative sentences  (bevelend)                -> Shut the door! (+)
                                                                                            -> Do not walk on the grass! (-)
4. Exclamatory sentences  (uitroepend)         -> She's awesome! (+)
                                                                                             -> Wasn't that wonderful! (-)
Each of these types of sentences is either Affirmative (+) (bevestigend) or Negative (-) (ontkennend)

Slide 7 - Slide

Give 1 example sentence for each of the type of sentences listed on the previous slide.

Slide 8 - Open question

Word Classes
/ Parts of Speech

Slide 9 - Mind map

An example of a noun is:
A
Joanna
B
runs
C
happy
D
serious

Slide 10 - Quiz

An example of a Quantifier is:
A
two
B
and
C
much
D
walking

Slide 11 - Quiz

An example of an Interjection is:
A
although
B
silly
C
Hey!
D
never

Slide 12 - Quiz

An example of an adjective is:
A
quickly
B
him
C
the
D
heavy

Slide 13 - Quiz

Words
Words belong to different categories; such a category is called a word class or a part of speech (woordsoort).

Nouns
Adverbs
Quantifiers
Articles
Particles
Prepositions
Adjectives
Pronouns
Conjunctions
Verbs
Numerals
Interjections

Slide 14 - Slide

English is a S-V-O language.

What does S-V-O stand for?

Slide 15 - Open question

Jennifer buys her groceries at 'Do It Center' every weekend.

The Direct Object in this sentence is:

A
Jennifer
B
every weekend
C
at Do it Center
D
her groceries

Slide 16 - Quiz

Last month my friend bought a second-hand car.

The Subject in this sentence is:
A
a second-hand car
B
Last month
C
bought
D
my friend

Slide 17 - Quiz

Parsing
Indicating to what word class each word in a sentence belongs is called parsing (ontleden).
Here is an example of parsing a sentence:
' It had been a very pleasant and instructive evening.'

It = pers. pron
a= indef. art.
and= conj.
had= verb
very= adverb
instructive= adj
been= verb
pleasant= adj
evening=noun

Slide 18 - Slide

What is Sentence Structure?
Sentences in English use a general order:

(1) Subject    (2) Verb   (3) Object

These general groups of words can be a single word each, or entire phrases. This is especially true for the object part of the sentence structure, which can represent any complement to the verb and additional information.

Slide 19 - Slide

Basic Sentence Structure
Subject
Verb(s)
Object/Additional information
I
like
Mathematics.
The students
dislike
their grumpy English teacher.
A group of vandals
destroyed
the classroom.

Slide 20 - Slide

Explanation: 

The subject is the actor of the verb.
The verb is the action, event or state.
The object is the element (who/what) that the action is done to.


Slide 21 - Slide

Additional Information
Sentences with additional information can be divided into specific parts: indirect object, direct object, place/location and time.

Subject
Verb(s)
Direct object
Indirect object
Prep. Phrase
Time
She
shares
her notes
with her classmates 
in Teams online
after each class.

Slide 22 - Slide

Explanation:
1. The indirect object is what is affected by the verb.
2. Prepositional phrases or places are noun phrases usually started by a preposition. 
3. The time is when the event happens.






* Not all groups of words are necessary in all sentences. A basic sentence in English should at least have: a subject, verb.
Subject
Verb(s)
Indirect object
Direct object
Prep. Phrase 
Time
He
runs.
Janet
is having
dinner
at El Gaucho
at the moment.
She
is going
home

Slide 23 - Slide

Adding details to sentences
To add information to subjects and objects we can use adjectives. To add information to verbs, we use adverbs. These create groups of words that form phrases, many words referring to one idea (noun, verb, object, location, time, etc.).

The tired old man swept the floor. (The whole noun phrase forms the subject.)
They ate too much chocolate cake. (The whole noun phrase forms the object.)
We are watching films on Netflix. (The whole verb form forms the verb.)

Slide 24 - Slide

PUT IN THE CORRECT ORDER!
1. house/we/moved
2. look / very tired / you
3. really wants / Peter / his best friend's car
4. won't know what to do / the angry students /until they get their schedule

Slide 25 - Open question

Question Structure
To form questions in the English language, we place the first verb before the subject. The rest of the sentence usually follows standard word order.
To form questions we usually add an auxiliary verb before the subject. This varies depending on tenses and the information asked for.
  • He walks to school. -> Does he walk to school?
We do not need an auxiliary verb with the verb to be, which is placed before the subject to form a question.
  • He is very sad. -> Is he very sad?

Slide 26 - Slide

Questions formed with Question Words
Questions can also be formed with question words, which usually come at the very beginning of the sentence, before the verb.


Question word
First verb
Subject
Additional verbs
Additional information
Do
you
like
the English lessons?
What
are
you
wearing
to the BO lesson?
Where
can
we
go
during our break?
Why
are
you
studying
so hard?

Slide 27 - Slide

PUT IN THE CORRECT ORDER!
1. time / it / to go home / is / ?
2. the Prime Minister / do/ you/ know/ ?
3. with me / you / do / to go / want / to the OLC/ ?
4. help / my email account / can / anyone / me / with / ?

Slide 28 - Open question

Negative Structures
Negative sentences are formed by adding not after the main verb.
  • He is not listening.
The rest of the sentence follows standard structure rules.

Negative sentences often require an auxiliary verb, such as be, do or have
In these sentences, not comes after the auxiliary verb, but before any other verbs.

Slide 29 - Slide

Negative sentences with auxiliary verbs
  • I am not going to Spanish class.
  • He does not know the answer.
  • Do not forget your laptop.

Not should directly follow the main verb; no other words should come between a negative verb form.
  • I do not understand the question. 

Slide 30 - Slide

Negative Questions
For negative questions, the first verb is placed before the subject, and not follows the subject.

  • Paul is not paying attention. -> Is Paul not paying attention?
  • We are not late for our class. -> Are we not late for our class?

Slide 31 - Slide

PUT IN THE CORRECT ORDER!
1. Jerome / not / a nice person / is / ?
2. not / the truth / is / he / telling / ?
3. coming back / they / not / next week / are / ?
4. not / finished / are / the new ICU rooms /?

Slide 32 - Open question

Rebecca 
was
all morning?
stuck
in traffic

Slide 33 - Drag question

Is the word order in this sentence correct?

I write my reports every morning at my desk.
A
Incorrect
B
Correct

Slide 34 - Quiz

Leonardo
is
the Project Manager
at Albo Aruba?

Slide 35 - Drag question

What did you
learn today?

Slide 36 - Mind map

Do you have any questions?

Slide 37 - Open question

Slide 38 - Link