English: where did it come from, where will it go? (Cotton-Eye Joe)
1 / 24
Slide 1: Video
EngelsMiddelbare schoolhavoLeerjaar 4
This lesson contains 24 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 3 videos.
Items in this lesson
Slide 1 - Video
The history of English
or: why an 11th century farmer from England can buy a Frisian cow today.
Slide 2 - Slide
Slide 3 - Video
Because of borrowing, English shares many words with:
Slide 4 - Quiz
English is a member of which language group?
Finnish - Ugric
Slide 5 - Quiz
We can tell that languages are related to one another because _____
Scribes recorded when the languages split
The language was written down
They have some similar grammar
They show regular consistent changes
Slide 6 - Quiz
Words that start with a "pf" sound in German start with _____ in English
Slide 7 - Quiz
Proto-Indo-European was most likely spoken in _____
Slide 8 - Quiz
There are about 7000 languages in the world. What is the main (or traditional) language of the area you come from? Which family does it belong to?
Slide 9 - Open question
We talked about several similarities between English and German. Can you find others by looking at a dictionary of German and comparing the words to their English translations? Are these similar to Dutch words?
Slide 10 - Open question
While we talked about the origin of Indo-European as being in Russia and Ukraine, another prominent hypothesis places the Indo-European homeland in modern day Turkey. Why might researchers have come to different conclusions?
Slide 11 - Open question
On the history of linguistic research into Proto-Indo-European and other languages
This lecture, when given in a classroom, is entitled: “The Words Tell The Story.” What is meant by that title?
Slide 15 - Open question
Why do English speakers have such predictable responses to the two phrases, “They gave us a hearty welcome,” and “They gave us a cordial reception.”?
Slide 16 - Open question
Based on the increasingly diverse population in the United States and on the past history of English, what prediction can you make about the future of the English language? What factors may influence the future evolution of the language?
Slide 17 - Open question
The reason why the Celts benefited from Roman rule was that
The Romans did not demand tribute from conquered people
The Celts learned from the Romans how to build seafaring ships
The Romans enabled the Celts to attack the Jutes and Frisians
The Romans defended the Celts from the tribes on the western coasts of Northern Europe
Slide 18 - Quiz
What were the factors that enabled the Old Norse and Saxon languages to mix, rather than one replacing the other?
The Treaty of Alfred and Guthrum stated that each tribe would learn the other’s language
Neither tribe was able to eradicate the other’s language
Peaceful borders and subsequent intermarriages made it practical for the Saxons to use Old Norse words
The languages were linguistically similar and shared many words already
Slide 19 - Quiz
Why are there so many words derived from Old French in modern English?
Tthe Norman invaders spoke French and placed French-speaking monarchs on the British throne
Because the Saxons attacked the Vikings in France and conquered them in 1066
Because the Norman conquerors did not care if Saxon peasants continued speaking Saxon
Both A and C
Slide 20 - Quiz
What is so noteworthy about the history of the English language?
It is a long and peaceful history
Although the story contains many periods of conquest and conflict, the conquerors in this period of British history never strove to wipe out the language of the conquered people
Modern speakers perceive no differences between English words with different origins
The English language has remained remarkably static for centuries
Listen to the differences in Old and Middle English, and compare that to the sounds of English you are familiar with.
Slide 22 - Slide
"English and French expressions [in English] may have similar denotations but slightly different connotations and associations. Generally the English words are stronger, more physical, and more human. We feel more at ease after getting a hearty welcome than after being granted a cordial reception. Compare freedom with liberty, friendship with amity, kingship with royalty, holiness with sanctity, happiness with felicity, depth with profundity, and love with charity." (Simeon Potter, Our Language, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1950/66, pp. 37-38.)
Slide 23 - Slide
Wiktionary.org provides a lengthy list of English words with French origins. (You can find the list here: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Transwiki:List_of_English_words_of_French_origin). Spend some time perusing the list; then take a look at this list of modern English words with Saxon origins: http://www.ibiblio.org/lineback/words/sax.htm. Find some sets of synonyms, compare them, and see if Potter’s assessment that the English words feel “stronger, more physical, and more human” seems accurate to you. Which examples prove or disprove his assertion?