# YR3-K16-LSN4

• JOIN THIS LESSONUP
• KERBOODLE PAGE 254
1 / 38
Slide 1: Slide
BiologieMiddelbare schoolhavo, vwoLeerjaar 3

This lesson contains 38 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 1 video.

## Items in this lesson

• JOIN THIS LESSONUP
• KERBOODLE PAGE 254

#### Slide 1 -Slide

PLAN FOR TODAY:
• CHECK IN CLASS ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 2
• HW FOR LESSON 4 (ANY QUESTIONS)
• PRACTICE QUESTIONS
• IN CLASS ASSIGNMENTS LESSON 4

#### Slide 2 -Slide

ASSIGNMENTS DURING LESSON 2

#### Slide 3 -Slide

• I know what mutations are and how they can occur.
• I know what (types of) tumors there are and how they can affect the body.
• I understand how cancer works and how it can be treated.
• I can use a punnet square to show the inheritance of certain genes.
• I know how to calculate the chances of various possible outcomes with genetic disorders.
• I understand what various inherited diseases are and how they can be passed on in families.

• MUTATIONS
• MUTANT
• ALBINO
• CYSTIC FIBROSIS
• HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE
• SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA
• COLOUR BLINDNESS
• TUMORS
• CANCER
• MALIGNANT
• BENIGN
• METASTASIZE
KERBOODLE P. 254-255

#### Slide 4 -Slide

Steps with Punnet Squares
2. Identify genotype parent 1. Show possible gametes.
3. Identify genotype parent 2. Show possible gametes.
4. Fill in your punnet squares.
5. Write down ratios of the possible genotypes.
6. Write down ratios of the possible phenotypes.

#### Slide 5 -Slide

PRACTICE ASSIGNMENTS
INHERITANCE

#### Slide 6 -Slide

Test cross
How to know if an organism is heterozygous (Rr) or homozygous (RR)?
--> crossing the unknown parent with a homozygous recessive parent

#### Slide 7 -Slide

Mutations
= a change in a gene/chromosome that can cause a change in a characteristic

change in the DNA base sequence
--> gene codes for another
characteristic
--> MUTANT (mostly recessive)

#### Slide 8 -Slide

Mutations - albinism
Normal gene produces melanin pigment (protects against UV)
Mutated gene doen't produce melanin

#### Slide 10 -Video

02:14
What would be step 1a for this cross?

#### Slide 11 -Open question

02:30
What would be step 1b for this cross?

#### Slide 12 -Open question

02:44
What would be step 2 for this cross?

#### Slide 13 -Open question

03:10
What would be step 3 for this cross?

#### Slide 14 -Open question

03:27
What are the chances of a hairless cat in this cross?
A
0 %
B
25 %
C
50 %
D
75 %

#### Slide 15 -Quiz

Mutations - antibiotics resistance
Mutant gene codes for a protein that breaks down the antibiotics

#### Slide 17 -Slide

Inherited diseases to know
1. Cystic fibrosis
2. Huntington's disease
3. Sickle cell anaemia
4. Colour blindness

#### Slide 18 -Slide

1. Cystic fibrosis
• Recessive disease caused by a gene mutation, risk 1/2000
• Thick, sticky mucus blocks air passages + digestive tubes
• Respiratory and digestive problems
• Antibiotics, chest physio, gene therapy (inhaling correct genes)
• Heterozygous Cc = carriers, homozygous recessive cc = sufferers

Cystic fibrosis

#### Slide 20 -Slide

2. Huntington's disease
• Dominant disease, risk 1/20,000
• Degeneration of brain cells -> movement, memory disorders
• Heterozygous Hh + homozygous dominant HH = sufferers
• Late disease onset (>30-40y)

#### Slide 21 -Slide

3. Sickle cell anaemia

• Recessive genetic disease
• Sickle shaped RBC with abnormal haemoglobin -> O2 transport problems
• West Africa
• homozygous recessive = affected
• heterozygous = carrier (resistant to malaria!)

#### Slide 22 -Slide

3. Sickle cell anaemia

#### Slide 23 -Slide

4. Colour blindness
• Recessive allele on x-chromosome
• more in male (only one X)

#### Slide 24 -Slide

4. Colour blindness

#### Slide 25 -Slide

Genetic engineering
Removing a gene from an organism and putting it in another
Eg: making insulin in diabetes patients

#### Slide 26 -Slide

Selective breeding
Artificial selection
-> improves characteristics in
plants and animals, usually for
human benefit
-> humans determine passed
on alleles to next generation

#### Slide 28 -Slide

Cancer
• 10% of all cancers are genetic
• mutation in genes that control the way cells grow and multiply
• Leading to uncontrolled cell growth -> tumor

Cancer

#### Slide 31 -Slide

05:42
What possible gene combinations can you come up with for parent 2?

#### Slide 32 -Open question

05:59
Step 4
Please draw this punnet square in your notebook and try to complete it.

#### Slide 33 -Slide

06:35
What would be step 5 for this cross?

#### Slide 34 -Open question

06:54
What would be step 6 for this cross?

#### Slide 35 -Open question

07:12
What are the chances of an offspring like Moo?
A
0 %
B
25 %
C
50 %
D
75 %

#### Slide 36 -Quiz

ASSIGNMENTS FOR LESSON 4:
• START AT THE LEVEL THAT APPLIES TO YOU
• THEY MUST BE COMPLETED BEFORE THE NEXT LESSON
• FIRST 10 MINUTES IN SILENCE, THEN YOU CAN DISCUSS AND ASK QUESTIONS

#### Slide 37 -Slide

STUDY FOR THE TESTWEEK:

• STUDY FOR THE GLOSSARY QUIZ

• STUDY THE WRTS LSN 1-3