1. Pope Against Emperor

Pope Against Emperor
Who had more power; kings and emperors or the church?
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Slide 1: Slide
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This lesson contains 21 slides, with interactive quizzes and text slides.

time-iconLesson duration is: 70 min

Items in this lesson

Pope Against Emperor
Who had more power; kings and emperors or the church?

Slide 1 - Slide

Context for this story
  • Almost 100% of Europe is Christian
  • Christians believed God is almighty = has all the power
  • Christians believed God can give power to specific people
Jesus giving the keys of The Church to Peter (the first pope according to many christians)

Slide 2 - Slide

Different powers
Spiritual power
- Pope
- Rule over Church and its followers
- Spiritual matters; life after death
Secular power
- Emperors and Kings
- Rule over countries and people
- Worldly matters; life on earth
- Command armies; act as judges

Slide 3 - Slide

Problems with feudal system
  • After death, vassal land should go back to the king
  • But it became hereditary = it passed to the vassals son
  • Those sons were not as loyal to the king as the originals were
  • Kings wanted to prevent this 

Slide 4 - Slide

Who has the most power?
use weapons
command soldiers
 command police
make laws
act as judge
punish people

Slide 5 - Drag question

9Make the correct combinations
papal bull

Slide 6 - Drag question

1. Source 6.6 in your book shows how spiritual and secular power were divided by Christ. As you can also see in the picture, a key and a sword were used to symbolise this division of power.
A. Why do you think a sword was used to symbolise secular power? Explain your answer.

Slide 7 - Open question

1B. A key is used to enter a new space.
Why do you think a key was used to symbolise spiritual power? Explain the term spiritual in your answer.

Slide 8 - Open question

2A. Which disadvantage of the feudal system is mentioned in the text?
Use the word "hereditary" in your answer.

Slide 9 - Open question

2B. Explain why kings wanted to appoint bishops to prevent this disadvantage.

Slide 10 - Open question

  • = Regional leaders of the church -> listened to the pope
  • Were not allowed to have children
  • Kings wanted them as their vassals 

Slide 11 - Slide

Investiture Controversy
  • Emperors and kings would name their allies to bishops
  • The pope did not agree 
  • The conflict is called Investiture controversy 
Investiture comes from the 'vest' that a bishop got to wear. The controversy is who would get to put that vest on him.

Slide 12 - Slide

3a. Read source 6.9
This decree was written by Pope Gregory VII in 1078.
The source states that investitures are often performed by ‘lay persons’. Who does this probably refer to? Explain the the term "lay persons" in your answer.

Slide 13 - Open question

3b. Read source 4.3.5.
What – according to this source – will happen if a bishop receives his investiture from a king or emperor? ( 2 answers).

If the question states: - according to the source- your answer must be found in the source alone, nowhere else.
So don't use your own knowledge to add information to the answer.

Slide 14 - Open question

3c. Did Pope Gregory VII take this measure seriously? Find an example in the theory (text slide) to back up your answer.

Slide 15 - Open question

Papal bull (written by Gregory VII)
  1. The Roman Church was founded by God alone.
  2. Only the pope can remove or restore bishops. 
  3. All secular rulers shall kiss the feet of the pope alone.
  4. It is permitted for popes to depose emperors.
  5. The pope shall be jugded by no one.
  6. The Roman Church has never made and will never make mistakes.

Slide 16 - Slide

Imagine you are emperor Henry IV. Write a response to Gregory VII.

Slide 17 - Open question

  • The German King Henry IV and his bishops protested this bull
  • He was excommunicated - he was no longer a part of he church and would not be allowed in heaven
  • People weren't allowed to talk to someone excommunicated
  • Traveled to the pope to beg for forgiveness (1077)

Slide 18 - Slide

  • A years later Henry started appointing bishops again
  • Took an army to Rome
  • Installed an antipope

Slide 19 - Slide

5. What were 3 consequences for Henry IV when he was excommunicated by the pope?

Slide 20 - Open question

6. Put the events in the correct chrono-logical order

(oldest to the top)
King Henry IV decides to travel to Canossa to beg Pope Gregory VII for forgiveness.
Henry IV is crowned emperor by Pope Clement III
King Henry IV ignores the Pope and appoints the bishop of Milan. Because of this, Pope Gregory VII excommunicates him.
Dictatus Papae: Pope Gregory VII claims that only the Pope is allowed to appoint bishops.
King Henry IV takes an army to Rome to drive out Gregory VII. He has a new Pope elected: Pope Clement III.

Slide 21 - Drag question