CH4 sec. 4.6 Emancipation and liberation

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH4 The age of citizens and steam engines
The Industrial Revolution
sec. 4.6 Emancipation and liberation
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Slide 1: Slide
GeschiedenisMiddelbare schoolhavoLeerjaar 2

This lesson contains 16 slides, with text slides.

time-iconLesson duration is: 50 min

Items in this lesson

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH4 The age of citizens and steam engines
The Industrial Revolution
sec. 4.6 Emancipation and liberation

Slide 1 - Slide

Learning objectives
Main question: Which groups in the 19th century stood up for their rights, such as freedom and equal treatment?
  • You can explain what the ideals of the feminists were and how what they achieved.
  • You can explain what the aim was of abolitionism. 
  • You can explain what the ideals of the confessionalists were and how they committed themselves to these ideals. 
  • You can explain what changed in the administration in 1917.
  • You can explain how the Netherlands became a pillarized society.
  • You  know the terms and dates of this section.

Slide 2 - Slide

What is emancipation?
Granting equal rights to people who are treated unequal.

Four movements:
  • socialism (workers)
  • abolitionism (slaves)
  • feminism (women)
  • confessionalism (Protestants and Roman

Slide 3 - Slide

1848 Introduction limited suffrage
  •  Only men (although not specified in constitution)
  • Specific income level  (bourgeosie)

1887 Expansion limited suffrage
  • Officially restricted to men only.
  • Adjustments suffrage criteria. Extending men’s right to vote. 1888 26% > 1897 50%

Slide 4 - Slide

In the 19th century most women worked, because they were poor. Rich women didn't work. Girls only attended primary school. Should become wives and mothers.

Women weren't equal to men. They were disadvantaged.
  • Had to obey their husband, father or brother (subordinate).
  • Couldn't own property or act independently of their
husbands ('handelingsonbekwaam'). 
  • Received lower wages than men (same work).
  • Weren't allowed to vote. According to Protestants and
Roman Catholics men should decide about government.

Slide 5 - Slide

1870  Feminism = Movement which defends rights and status of women.
Feminists wanted equal rights for women.
  • Same pay for men and women
  • Chance to continue their education
  • Women's suffrage (right to vote and the right to get voted for)

1870-1920 First feminist wave
Campaign for emancipation was mainly aimed at achieving women’s right to vote.

Slide 6 - Slide


Wilhelmina Drucker and Aletta Jacobs

1889 Vrije Vrouwen Vereniging (VVV)
1894 Vereniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht (VVK)

Organised meetings and demonstrations.

Slide 7 - Slide

Abolitionism = Movement to end slavery.

1863 Dutch parliament decided to end slavery in Surinam and the Dutch West Indies.

33,000 slaves in Surinam and 12,000 slaves in the Dutch West Indies were released from slavery, but obliged to work ten more years on plantations.

Slide 8 - Slide

The school struggle
1848 new constitution contained freedom of education.

Liberals were in government. Thought that education should be provided in non-religious state schools funded by the government. 

Roman Catholics and Protestants started faith schools. These schools weren’t funded by the government. 

Slide 9 - Slide

The school struggle
School struggle = Political fight in the 19th century about the 
financial equality for confessional and state education.

Liberals and socialists wanted education to be neutral. No 
funding for faith schools. 
Argument: education about faith is a task of the  Church, 
not the government.

Roman Catholics and Protestants wanted funding for faith 
schools too. 
Argument: Christians pay taxes as well.

Slide 10 - Slide

The school struggle
Liberals and socialists wanted separation of political and religious affairs. 

Confessionals (Roman Catholics and Protestants) thought 
faith and politics have a lot to do with each other. 

Organized themselves  by setting up political parties and 
working together. 

Confessionalism = movement that thinks that the 
administration of a country should be based on religious 

Slide 11 - Slide

The school struggle
1878 First Dutch political party founded. 
Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP).
  • Protestant
  • Abraham Kuyper

1888 Algemene Bond van R.K. Kiesverenigingen
  • Roman Catholic
  • Herman Schaepman

Slide 12 - Slide

Universal suffrage
Pacification of 1917
End of school struggle and struggle for universal suffrage. 

Exchange between confessionalists and liberals & socialists. 

  • Funding faith schools (confessionalists)
  • Universal suffrage (liberals and socialists) 

Slide 13 - Slide

Universal suffrage
1917 Universal suffrage for men
All men received:
  • Active suffrage (right to vote)
  • Passive suffrage (right to be elected)
All women received:
  • Passive suffrage (right to be elected)

1919 Universal suffrage for men and women
Women received active suffrage as well.

Slide 14 - Slide

Pillarization (verzuiling) = Segregation of society into groups with their own political or religious beliefs (Protestant, Roman Catholic, socialist, liberal); each pillar has its own political party, newspaper and societies. 

Slide 15 - Slide

Get to work
What? See whiteboard.
How? Alone 
Help? Ask neighbour. Can't figure it out? Ask teacher. 
Time? Until the end of the lesson. 
Done? Learn terms and dates. Ask teacher. 

Slide 16 - Slide