The present perfect tense
refers to an action or state that either occurred
at an indefinite time in the past (e.g., we have talked before)
or began in the past and continued to the present time
(e.g., he has grown impatient over the last hour).
This tense is formed by have/has + the past participle.
1) The first element is have or has,
(depending on the subject the verb is matched with.)
2)The second element is the past participle of the verb,
which is usually formed by adding -ed or -d to the verb’s root
(e.g., walked, cleaned, typed, perambulated, jumped, laughed, sautéed)