Seals (Junior)

SEALS
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Slide 1: Slide
Social StudiesHistory+4Age 51st,2nd Grade

This lesson contains 28 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 1 video.

time-iconLesson duration is: 45 min

Introduction

This lesson discusses seal species and why they are important to our ecosystem.

Instructions

This lesson is about seals species, some of the issues harming seals and what everyone can do to help them.

Time: 45 minutes

Contact: education@seashepherdglobal.org
© Sea Shepherd 2021

Items in this lesson

SEALS

Slide 1 - Slide

This lesson is provided by Sea Shepherd.  This lesson is provided by Sea Shepherd.  Sea Shepherd is a marine conservation organisation with a mission to protect the ocean and marine wildlife.  Sea Shepherd works globally on a range of issues impacting the ocean, running numerous direct action campaigns each year.  Seals are one species that Sea Shepherd is fighting to protect.
What you already know...
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Watch  the video

Slide 2 - Slide

During the lesson we will use these icons to identify the learning actions.
Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Protecting seals.

Slide 3 - Slide

This lesson is about seals species, some of the issues harming seals and what everyone can do to help them.

INTERACTIVE JOIN – ask students to go to www.LessonUp.app

Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Seals include true seals, sea lions and walruses.

Slide 4 - Slide

Seals
There are around 33 species in the seal family, also known as pinnipeds.

Pinnipeds include seals, sea lions and walruses.

Some seal species have really low numbers and could disappear from the ocean if we don’t help protect them.

Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
What are the differences between seals and sea lions?

Slide 5 - Slide

Seals and sea lions
Difference between seals and sea lions

Seals and sea lions have different features.

Ask students to identify the differences from the images?

Seals:
  • ]Have smaller front flippers.
  • Wriggle on bellies when on land.
  • Lack the ear flaps, have a visible ear hole.
  • Their hind flippers point out.
  • Fur covered long claws on hind flippers.
  • Use hinder flippers when swimming.
  • Are white to grey or black in colouring.

Sea lions:
  • Can walk on land using large flippers.
  • Are noisier – bark loudly.
  • Have visible ear flaps.
  • Their hind flippers rotate under body when on land.
  • They use front flippers when swimming.
  • Are brown colouring.

Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
How do seals move?

Slide 6 - Slide

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Illegal Fishing
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.
Largest seal – southern elephant seal up to 3.7m(12.1feet) a

Smallest seal – Baltic ringed seal in Finland up to 1.5m (5feet)

Largest sea lion – Stellers sea lion up to 3.4m (11feet)

Smallest sea lion – Galapagos sea lion measures up to 2.5m (8.2ft)

Slide 7 - Slide

Largest and smallest seals and sea lions
Largest seal – southern elephant seal up to 3.7m(12.1feet) and can weight up to 4,000kg (8,818lbs).

Smallest seal – Baltic ringed seal in Finland up to 1.5m (5feet) and can weight up to 100kg (220.5lbs).

Largest sea lion – Stellers sea lion up to 3.4m (11feet) and can weight up to 1,134kg (2,500lbs).

Smallest sea lion – Galapagos sea lion measures up to 2.5m (8.2ft) and can weight up to 400kg (550lbs).

Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
Galapagos sea lions.

Slide 8 - Slide

Galapagos sea lion
Galapagos sea lions are found mainly on the Galapagos Islands off Ecuador.  

Males measure up to 250cm (8.2ft) and can weight up to 400kg (550lbs). They live up to between 15 - 20 years.

Galapagos sea lions can dive 600m deep and can stay under water for around 10 minutes at a time.

Status - Endangered

Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
Saami seal.

Slide 9 - Slide

Saami seal
Saami seals are part of the artic ringed seal family, but they became trapped in the Saami lake, in Finland, after the last ice age. Ice broke apart and moved, and the ringed seal family was split up across the region.

They measure up to 1.5m (5feet) and can weight up to 100kg (220.5lbs)

They are critically endangered with less than 300 of them left.


Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
Harp seal.

Slide 10 - Slide

Harp seals
Harp seals are found in the artic region – from Canada, Greenland to Russia.   They migrate each year to feed, with a round trip of 4,989km (3,100miles).

They can dive for 10 to 20 minutes at a time, up to 400 m (1,312 feet) deep.

They measure 1.8m (6feet) and weight around 136kg (300 lbs). They can live up to 30 years.

Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
Weddell seal.

Slide 11 - Slide

Weddell seals
Weddell seals live in Antarctica (south pole).  They measure up to 3.5m (11.5feet) and can weight up to 600kg (1,322.8lbs).

Weddell seals can dive to around 600m and have been timed to dive for up to 80 minutes.  They can live up to 30 years.



Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
Seal babies are called ?

Slide 12 - Slide

Seal pups
What are seal babies called?  – Pups.

When they are born many seal pups have fur. They have to stay on land until the fur is gone and their fur coat has become water proof.   

Mum only feeds them for a few days or weeks, depending on species, and then they have to learn to swim and catch their own food.


Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
What do seals eat?

Slide 13 - Slide

What do seals eat?
Seals like to eat fish, squid and krill.

The leopard seal is different, it actually eats other seals and penguins.


Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
How do seals breathe underwater?

Slide 14 - Slide

How do seals breathe underwater?
Ask students: “How do seals breathe underwater?”

When we go under water, we hold our breath and use the oxygen in our lungs.

Seals actually exhale oxygen before diving, then they breathe slowly using the oxygen in their blood stream.  

Seals may only dive for a few minutes at a time, but they can stay underwater for much longer. Elephant seals can stay under water for up to two hours.


Illegal Fishing
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.
HUNTING SEALS
Targeted by humans for centuries for fur/skins, meat and blubber for oil.


Canadian seal hunt targets 400,000 harp seals each year.

Slide 15 - Slide

Hunted
Why are seals disappearing?

Seals have been the target of hunters for many centuries and it still continues in some countries.

Seals are hunted for their fur/skins, for meat and the blubber for seal oil. Seal oil is used in capsules and marketed as fish oil supplements.  

Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
Conflict with fisheries.

Slide 16 - Slide

Conflict with fisheries
Seals feed on fish, as a main food source.  Fishermen don’t like seals taking fish that they want to catch and sell for us to eat.  So the fishermen will sometimes kill the seals to stop them taking fish.

Ask students: Does that sound fair, the seal is just having its lunch of fish and fishermen chase them away or hurt them?  Should the seal be allowed to eat the fish?

Fish is a seals food source, but globally domestic cats eat more fish than seals do.


Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
By-catch in fishing nets or long lines.

Slide 17 - Slide

By-catch
Seals can get caught in the nets of fishing vessels that are catching the fish people eat.  The nets are so big and they catch/trap every animal in the way.  Sometimes the seals don’t get released in time and they die.

To help protect seals we have to make sure the fishing vessels do the right thing and watch out for them and release the seals quickly.

Longlines are more dangerous for seals.  Baited hooks entice them into a free fed, soon finding themselves caught on the hook.

Ask students why they think seals get caught in nets? Answer: The seals and fishermen want the same fish. The seals because that is what they eat, the fishermen because the want to sell it.


Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
Entangled in abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear.
Ghostnets - can you see the net?

Slide 18 - Slide

Entanglement
Each year a lot of fishing gear is lost or left behind in the ocean. These nets float in the ocean catching marine wildlife including seals.  

Imagine the seal swimming along and all of a sudden getting caught in a fishing net or lines. They can’t get free until someone helps them. Unfortunately, help is not always in time.

Ask students how we can help stop marine wildlife becoming entangled?
  • By helping to clean up fishing gear from the ocean.
  • Making the fishing vessels clean up their fishing gear.


Illegal Fishing
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.
PLASTIC POLLUTION
Each year over 12 million tonnes of trash enter the ocean.


Slide 19 - Slide

A sea of trash
Every day somewhere in the world rubbish is finding its way into the ocean. It is estimated that this rubbish amounts to more than one garbage truck every 40 seconds dumping trash in the ocean – imagine all that rubbish floating in the ocean

All kinds of trash is left behind at beaches or in waterways to be washed out to sea, dumped at sea from boats or lost over board in storms from container ships.

Teacher’s note:  Over 12 million tonnes of trash is finding its way into the ocean each year.  This amount is growing each year.  It equates to one garbage truck every 40 seconds dumping in the ocean.

Illegal Fishing
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.
What do you think happens if seals find rubbish in the ocean?.

Slide 20 - Slide

A sea of trash
Ask students: “What do you think happens if seals find rubbish in the ocean?”

Seals can’t always distinguish the difference between rubbish and food, and when they do it too late and they may have already swallowed it or caught up in it.  

Illegal Fishing
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.
What can we do
to stop trash
ending up
in the ocean?

Slide 21 - Slide

Stopping the trash
Ask students  “What do you think we can do to stop this trash ending up in the ocean?”

Teacher’s note: You can discuss things like:
  • Reducing single use plastics, so they don’t end up in the ocean.
  • Using reusable products.
  • How to properly dispose of rubbish.
  • Recycling plastics.
  • Doing clean ups.  


What do you like most
about seals or sea lions?

Slide 22 - Open question

What do you like most about seals or sea lions?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or write on paper:
 
 “What do you like most about seals or sea lions?”



Write down one issue that we talked
about that is harming seals?

Slide 23 - Open question

What is one issue harming seals?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or write on paper:
 
 “Write down one issue we talked about that is harming seals?”


Write down one thing that you can do
to help protect seals?

Slide 24 - Open question

What can we do to help seals?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or write on paper:
 
 “Write down one thing that you can do to help protect seals?”



Write down one new thing you have learned today?

Slide 25 - Open question

What did you learn?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down one new thing you have learned today?”



Write down one thing you didn't understand?

Slide 26 - Open question

What don’t you understand?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or write on paper:  

“Write down one thing you didn’t understand?”


Slide 27 - Video

Sea Shepherd Lesson Activity Sheets provide additional lesson activities or discussion topics to expand the learning experience.

Optional fun video.
Show this video (1.00 mins), which shows seals playing:
https://youtu.be/jG4aDgq7jUM

www.seashepherdglobal.org

Slide 28 - Slide

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