children, women and classes in Victorian Times

The Victorian Age 
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This lesson contains 38 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 6 videos.

Items in this lesson

The Victorian Age 

Slide 1 - Slide

Victorian Times 

Slide 2 - Slide

Who is this person?

Slide 3 - Open question

Young Victoria
Elderly Victoria

Slide 4 - Slide

Queen Victoria (1819-1901)  Reign: 1837-1901
She had the longest reign in British history after Queen Elizabeth II.
Became queen at the age of 18;
Queen Victoria restored people’s faith in the monarchy again after a series of horrible leaders
1840-Victoria married a German prince, Albert, who became Prince-consort
After he died in 1861, she sank into a deep depression and wore black every day for the rest of her life

Slide 5 - Slide

General introduction
  • Enormous changes occured in political and social life in England
  • The scientific and technical innovations of the Industrial Revolution, the emergence of modern nationalism, and the European colonization of much of Africa, the Middle East, and the Far East changed most of Europe
  • Far-reaching new ideas created the greatest outpouring of literary works the world has ever seen

Slide 6 - Slide

The Victorian Age 
  • Started around 1830 ended in early 20th century
  • Named after Queen Victoria (1837 - 1901)
  • Britain: great economic and political power
  • "The workshop of the world"
  • "The empire on which the sun never set"

Slide 7 - Slide

The British Empire
where the sun never sets
  • England grew to become the greatest nation on earth
  • Empire included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, Kenya, and India
  • England built a very large navy and merchant fleet (for trade and colonization)
  • Because of England’s success, they felt it was their duty to bring English values, laws, customs, and religion to the “savage” races around the world

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Downsides of the uprise of industry
  • population increase 
  • Search for employment
  • Child Labour & Child crime
  • Housing shortage
  • Slum housing
  • Poor sanitary conditions
  • Destitution
  • Homeless children
  • Workhouses

Slide 11 - Slide

Victorian Times 
19th century society
Optimism, for the middle & upper classes
Pessimism for the lower classes & poor people
Industrial + economic growth Economic recession: surplus of labour
- Bad living conditions lower classes/poor
- Reform bills to improve situation labourers (child labour)
Max. 48 hours if 9 years old
Chimney sweepers
 Emancipation: women's rights
Sufragettes: women's & votes
1918 :allowed to vote if 30 years old
1928: 21 years old
Right to vote for women & lower classes
World Power: the British Empire
Queen of Britain
Empress of India
Imperialism: GB doubled its size
The Sun never sets on the British Empire!
Anglican Church, very religious + high morals Religious doubts, Darwin "Origin of Species", no longer only Adam and Eve story, but evolutionary ideas

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Lower classes 
- Bad living conditions lower classes/poor 
- Reform bills to improve situation labourers (child labour)
Max. 48 hours if 9 years old
Bit of education...
Bad health circumstances

Sufragettes: women's & votes
1918 :allowed to vote if 30 years old
1928: 21 years old
Right to vote for women & lower classes

Slide 13 - Slide

Slide 14 - Video

Slide 15 - Slide

Position of women in Victorian Times
*Poor women had to work

*Bad living conditions

* no rights to vote, husband was the boss
Difference between the classes:
*Rich women were supposed to be "the Angel of the House"
*Well-furnished houses & enough food, servants
* no rights to vote, husband decided on everything

Slide 16 - Slide

What about children?
What was the position of children during the Victorian Era?
In the different classes?

Slide 17 - Slide

rich children
raised by a nanny & spoiled 
hardly any contact with their parents
not allowed to eat at the same table
needed to marry a person from the same class

Slide 18 - Slide

Slide 19 - Video

What was Great Britain named in the 19th century
The Empire where the sun never sets
Old America
The Indian Empire
The Commonwealth Empire

Slide 20 - Quiz

Charles Dickens' ideas
criminals are made not born
he was closely concerned with every day life (poverty etc.)
his father had debts, was send to debters prison
the rest of the family to the workhouse
Charles had to work in a shoeblackening factory as a 12 -year-old

Slide 21 - Slide

The Workhouse
Orphans, the elderly, sick, disabled or unemployed in Victorian London, then you may have found yourself in the workhouse. Until the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, the treatment of the poor had not changed since the 1601 Poor Law.

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Types of jobs for poor women

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Slide 27 - Video

Charles Dickens and realism
The realistic novel was born in the 19th century, and is characterized by  social content, such as the description of the struggle of the bourgeoisie against the aristocratic society, or the description of the world of the poor and unfortunate.
London was the setting of most of his novels; he knew and described it in realistic details.
At first, Dickens created middle class characters, though often satirised. He gradually developed a more radical social view, although he was not a revolutionary thinker.  

Slide 28 - Slide

Special for Dickens' novels (I)
serialised stories in journals (= installments)
literature available for a wider audience 
(cheap + information for people from middle/higher classes )
ironical/satirical (subtle irony)
absurd characters and absurd names

Slide 29 - Slide

Slide 30 - Video

Special for Dickens's novels (II)
flat and vivid characters
most of the novels took place in the busy city
workhouse, childlabour
mostly male characters

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Slide 32 - Video

Is Dickens representative of the period ( Victorian era) he lived in?

    He is a clear representative of the Victorian period. His father spent too much money
    had large debts and was sent to prison for that. The rest of the family was sent to
    The WORKHOUSE. BAD LIVING CIRCUMSTANCES. Charles(12) had to work in a shoe
    blackening factory for three years CHILD LABOUR
    He wrote for his own class (identification) and to make sure richer people
    also learned about bad circumstances of the poor classes.

Slide 33 - Slide

Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens: Many of his novels were published in serial form, called instalments. His comic and sentimental descriptions of the lives of people in diverse occupations and social classes made Dickens the most popular Victorian novelist. 

Slide 34 - Slide

Oliver Twist
* Poor boy born in the Workhouse
* Sold for 5 pounds to a coffin maker
* Runs away to London
* Where he is "found" by an older boy
*  Brought to Mr Fagin, the leader of a boys' pickpocketing gang
* Lots of (sometimes criminal) activities happen
* Finally there is a happy end...

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subtle irony
Subtle irony: not immediately obvious irony. Use of words to convey a meaning that is
      the opposite of the real meaning.

...where on a rough, hard bed, he sobbed himself to sleep. Novel illustration of the tender laws of England. They let the paupers go to sleep.

Slide 36 - Slide

Women's rights
Emancipation: women's rights
in GB called Sufragettes: rights & votes for women 
1918 :allowed to vote if 30 years old
1928: vote at 21 years old
Rights to vote for women & lower classes

Slide 37 - Slide

Slide 38 - Video