Toothfish Poaching (Primary)

TOOTHFISH POACHING
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Slide 1: Slide
Social StudiesHistory+34-6 Grade6th,7th Grade

This lesson contains 31 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 1 video.

time-iconLesson duration is: 45 min

Introduction

Overfishing is emptying the ocean, with 90% of fisheries already overfished. Illegal fishing is increasing this. This lesson explains about illegal fishing in relation to Antarctic and Patagonian Toothfish.

Instructions

This lesson explains about illegal fishing in relation to Antarctic and Patagonian toothfish and methods being used to tackle illegal fishing.

Time: 45 minutes

Contact: education@seashepherdglobal.org
© Sea Shepherd 2021

Items in this lesson

TOOTHFISH POACHING

Slide 1 - Slide

This lesson is provided by Sea Shepherd.  Sea Shepherd was founded in 1977 and is a marine conservation organisation working to protect the oceans and marine wildlife.  Sea Shepherd works globally on a range of issues impacting the oceans, running numerous direct action campaigns each year.  IUU is one area Sea Shepherd is working on to help stop illegal fishing.
What you already know...
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Evaluate your knowledge

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Watch  the video

Slide 2 - Slide

During the lesson we will use these icons to identify the learning actions.
Illegal toothfish poaching and how it is being tackled.
Illegal toothfish poaching and how it is being tackled.

Slide 3 - Slide

This lesson explains about illegal fishing in relation to Antarctic and Patagonian toothfish and methods being used to tackle illegal fishing.

INTERACTIVE JOIN – ask students to go to www.LessonUp.app

What do you already know
about toothfish poaching?

Slide 4 - Mind map

What do you already know?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“What do you already know about toothfish poaching?”

Slide 5 - Video

Empty ocean by 2050
Scientists estimate that by 2050 the ocean ecosystem will be on the verge of collapse, empty of fish and marine wildlife, unless urgent action is taken on the issues impacting on the oceans and marine wildlife.

Show this video (2.53min), which explains how important all species are to our planet.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLcA31VRlRU

Discuss the video with the class and what it means.

Over 100 million tonnes of fish caught annually.
Over 100 million tonnes of fish caught annually.

Slide 6 - Slide

Overfishing the ocean
One of the reasons for this is overfishing of the ocean.

It is estimated that over 100 million tons of fish is caught each year. Fish is the largest traded commodity in the world.

UN estimates 90% of fish species overfished.
Two-thirds fully exploited
26% over exploited
10% healthy fisheries
UN estimates 90% of fish species overfished.

Slide 7 - Slide

Ocean 90% Overfished
This slide shows how much of the ocean has already been overfished.  

The United Nations believes two-thirds of the world’s fisheries are fully exploited and 26% are over-exploited, which means that only 10% of our planet's fisheries are healthy.

Illegal Fishing
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.

ILLEGAL FISHING

Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.

Slide 8 - Slide

Illegal, Unreported Unregulated (IUU) Fishing
The growing demand for seafood supports the illegal fishing trade.  IUU activity has a big impact on the ocean ecosystem.

Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch. In basic terms they are stealing from these waters.

Unreported Fishing
Unreported means that a fishing vessel may have a license with an allocated quota for fishing a particular species, such as tuna, but then catches more than their quota states and they fail to report it.

UNREPORTED
FISHING

Unreported means that a fishing vessel may have a license with an allocated quota for fishing a particular species, such as tuna, but then catches more than their quota states and they fail to report it.

Slide 9 - Slide

Unreported fishing
Unreported means that a fishing vessel may have a license with an allocated quota for fishing a particular species, such as tuna, but then catches more than their quota states and they don’t report it. This can also be legally licensed fishing vessels that fail to declare the full amount of their by-catch. When vessels are inspected the information recorded in the fishing log books are compared against what is in the fish holds of the vessel.

Unregulated Fishing
Unregulated refers to areas in the ocean where there may not be a quota or any regulations in place, either in that location or for the type of species.

UNREGULATED
FISHING

Unregulated refers to areas in the ocean where there may not be a quota or any regulations in place, either in that location or for the type of species.

Slide 10 - Slide

Unregulated fishing
Unregulated refers to areas where there may not be a quota or any regulations in place, either in that location or for the type of species. There are areas of the ocean that are not subject to any regulation. They aren’t controlled by a particular country or form part of any regulated zone.  Fishing vessels can head to these areas knowing no one is likely to be patrolling or monitoring fishing activity.

Regulating the fishing industry is a huge task, given the size of the oceans and the scale of commercial fishing operations. There are thousands of illegal fishing vessels out at sea catching marine wildlife.

Toothfish are high value targets.
Toothfish are high value targets.

Slide 11 - Slide

Species targeted - Toothfish
Commercial fishing operations are targeting high value species such as toothfish.

Both Patagonian and Antarctic toothfish are unique long-lived icefish species that are particularly vulnerable to over-exploitation due to their slowness to reach sexual maturity and high market value.

They are distinctive in that they live in Antarctic waters in depths of 300 to 2,500 meters; the coldest waters on Earth. As a result of this freezing habitat the Antarctic Toothfish has evolved antifreeze-like proteins in its blood, which with limited scientific research we still know very little about.

Toothfish life cycle
This image shows the Toothfish life cycle:

  • Egg – develop 4-5 months.
  • Larvae = age 1 – 6 years old – up to 12cm long.
  • Juvenille 6-7 years old – 12 -18 cm long.
  • Sub adult – 7-8 years old approx - 80 -100 cm long.
  • Mature adult age 8 to 50 years old  - 70cm to 2.2m.


TOOTHFISH LIFE CYCLE

This image shows the Toothfish life cycle:
  • Egg – develop 4-5 months.
  • Larvae = age 1-6 years old – up to 12cm long.
  • Juvenille 6-7 years old – 12-18 cm long.
  • Sub adult – 7-8 years old approx - 80 -100 cm long.
  • Mature adult age 8 to 50 years old  - 70cm to 2.2m.

Slide 12 - Slide

Toothfish life cycle
This image shows the Toothfish life cycle:
➢    Egg: develop 4-5 months.
➢    Larvae: age 1 – 6 years old – up to 12cm long.
➢    Juvenille: 6-7 years old – 12 -18 cm long.
➢    Sub adult: 7-8 years old approx. 80 -100 cm long.
➢    Sexually mature adult: age 8 to 50 years old  70cm to 2.2m.
10% of Antarctic and Patagonian toothfish
are taken illegally.
10% of Antarctic and Patagonian toothfish
are taken illegally.

Slide 13 - Slide

Illegal poaching
10% of Antarctic and Patagonian toothfish are caught illegally.

Toothfish is called ‘white gold’ because it can sell for a high price. In fish markets and restaurants it is called Chilean sea bass.


Why does overfishing have a bigger impact on slow developing species like toothfish?

Slide 14 - Open question

Ask students to respond via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom:

“Why does overfishing have a bigger impact on a slow developing species like toothfish?”

Answer: Population reduces fast when catching younger immature fish, before they have an opportunity to reproduce.

Illegal gillnets are used by poachers.
Illegal gillnets are used by poachers.

Slide 15 - Slide

Fishing for toothfish
Illegal fishing operations will use gillnets.

Gillnets are walls of netting set in a straight line that are very effective at trapping fish. Using floats on the surface the length of the lines can be adjusted to set the nets at varying depths. They are usually set several kilometres below the surface and can be many kilometres long.  


Protecting toothfish
International laws regulate fishing.


PROTECTING TOOTHFISH

International laws regulate fishing.

Slide 16 - Slide

Protecting marine wildlife from illegal fishing
In many countries and regions there are laws and regulations in place to help regulate fishing and protect marine ecosystems. These regulations help to provide the framework for the legal fishing industry and the basis upon which law enforcement agencies can detect, suppress and combat fisheries crimes.

International laws
In international waters there are regulations in place agreed upon via the United Nations, including restriction on driftnet fishing.


Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMO)

These organisations are international bodies that help to regulate fishing.

Cooperation between different countries on the management of some highly migratory species is important.

Slide 17 - Slide

Regional fisheries management organisations (RFMO)
These organisations are international bodies that help to regulate fishing, using the sustainable fisheries management practices discussed earlier. Cooperation between different countries on the management of some highly migratory species is important. Where a species moves between different countries and also in international waters, individual management of fishing runs the risk of the species being overfished quickly. Setting quotas for larger areas helps to really protect the species. It also creates a framework to tackle illegal fishing activities in these areas.

CCAMLR

Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) was established 1982.

Convention covers an area equal to around 10% of the Earth’s surface.

Covers fisheries targeted in the area, these are currently Patagonian toothfish, Antarctic toothfish, mackerel icefish and Antarctic krill

Slide 18 - Slide

Case Study – CCAMLR
The Southern Ocean around Antarctica has long been an area that attracts fisherman and illegal poachers, because of the easy access to large numbers of fish and whales, resulting in a high demand for species like krill and toothfish from this region.  But overfishing of these species risks damaging the ecosystem and leaving other marine wildlife without a food source.

In 1982 the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) was established. Its aim is to conserve Antarctic marine wildlife and protect ecosystems from over fishing. The Convention covers an area equal to around 10% of the Earth’s surface.

The Convention covers fisheries targeted in the area, these are currently Patagonian toothfish, Antarctic toothfish, mackerel icefish and Antarctic krill.  

Each fishery type has a set catch limit which aims to ensure the long-term sustainability of the fishery.  Where and when these catches may take place, is also set, to manage the impact on each regional eco-system.  All catches are to be reported to CCAMLR in order to properly monitor and check actual catches.


How and why do you think illegal fishing
could continue in this region?

Slide 19 - Open question

While many countries follow these restrictions and operate within the guidelines set down by the Convention, some do not and operate illegally in the area.  

Ask students to respond via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom.

“Why and how do you think illegal fishing could continue in this region?”

Possible answers:
➢    There is a lot of money to be made by catching species like toothfish.
➢    The CCAMLR region is a large area and not many countries are willing to patrol these areas to search for and catch illegal operations.

Detecting and stopping illegal fishing.
Detecting and stopping illegal fishing.

Slide 20 - Slide

Detecting and stopping illegal fishing
One way to reduce overfishing and stop illegal activity in this region is by detecting and detaining illegal fishing operations and monitoring the catches of legal fishing vessels.  

Which tools can be used to achieve this?


AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)

Locating a vessel can be done by monitoring AIS on a ships radar.

Shipping vessels are required by law to have on board an Automatic Identification System (AIS).

Slide 21 - Slide

Automatic Identification Systems (AIS)
Locating a vessel can be done by monitoring AIS on radar.  Shipping vessels are required to have on board an Automatic Identification System (AIS), which shows the location and identification details of the vessel. By monitoring the position of vessels authorities can detect illegal activity in protected areas, such as marine reserves.

Illegal operating vessels often have their AIS switched off, which means their identification details and position can not be traced back to them.

Image: Global Fishing Watch


SATELLITE MONITORING

Satellites allow fishing vessels to be monitored all over the world.

Which allows vessels to be tracked, even without their AIS switched on. 

Slide 22 - Slide

Satellite monitoring
Satellites allow fishing vessels to be monitored all over the world. This allows vessels patrolling for illegal activity to find the location of potential illegal activity in protected areas.


PATROL VESSELS

Law enforcement can chase down poachers and board them for inspection.

Inspection means taking a look at their log books, checking their registration documents, fishing license and what catch is in the ships fish hold.

Slide 23 - Slide

Patrol vessels
The best way to deter illegal activity is to patrol the seas.  

Using a patrol vessel that is faster than the fishing vessels, law enforcement can chase down poachers and board these for inspection. Inspection means taking a look at their log books, checking their registration documents, fishing license and what catch is in the ships fish holds.

Law enforcement agencies
Each country has its own agencies, such as fisheries agencies, coast guard, navy or marines that are tasked to monitor fishing activities and tackle the issue of IUU.  In areas like the Southern Ocean, which are large and remote, law enforcement bodies are less likely to patrol, leaving such areas open for poachers to raid.


INTERPOL

Interpol is an international police force involved in operations to monitor and coordinate the evidence required to arrest illegal operators, no matter where they are in the world. 

Slide 24 - Slide

INTERPOL
Interpol is an international police force, who monitor and collect the evidence required to arrest illegal fishing vessels, no matter where they are in the world.  INTERPOL can also issue purple notices against vessels, requesting participating countries to detain the vessel if it enters their waters.

Vessels that break the law and fish illegally can be blacklisted by countries or RMFO’s.  Once these return they will be arrested.  

Where some evidence has been gathered against an illegal operator, but not sufficient to prosecute the ship or it cannot be located, Interpol can issue what is called a Purple Notice against them.

A Purple Notice is for the provision of information on modi operandi, procedures, objects, devices or hiding places used by criminals. Which means that Interpol are looking for information on the ships activities and evidence against them, such as fishing gear that has been used to illegal fish.  It could be the vessel has tried to evade an investigation into their activities by fleeing a port or a countries’ waters, or they have false registration details.




Why should we protect species like toothfish?

Slide 25 - Open question

Ask students to respond via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom.

“Why should we protect species like toothfish?’

How can IUU
activity be detected?

Slide 26 - Mind map

Ask students to respond via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom.

“How can IUU activity be detected?”



How can we help protect toothfish?

Help to stop the demand for toothfish.

Help raise awareness about overfishing and the extent of illegal fishing operations.


Slide 27 - Slide

How we can help protect toothfish
While Sea Shepherd works with law enforcement to stop illegal poachers, everyone can take some simple actions to help.
 
What can you do to help protect toothfish?
➢    Help to stop the demand for toothfish, which drives the illegal poachers.
➢    Help raise awareness about overfishing and the extent of illegal fishing operations.

What else do you think you could do to help?



Write down three things you have learned?

Slide 28 - Open question

What did you learn?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down three things you have learned?”



Write down one thing you didn't understand?

Slide 29 - Open question

What don’t you understand?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down one thing you didn’t understand?”

Slide 30 - Slide

Next step
To further study the toothfish poaching industry use the Sea Shepherd Case Study – Operation Icefish, which documents our campaign to locate 6 illegal toothfish poaching vessels, our pursuit of the notorious toothfish poacher the Thunder for 110 days and our work to remove 72km of illegal gillnets from the water.

www.seashepherdglobal.org

Slide 31 - Slide

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