Session 4

Element 7 - Child Development

Session 4 
T - Level in Education and Early Years 
1 / 17
Slide 1: Tekstslide
MathematicsFurther Education (Key Stage 5)

In deze les zitten 17 slides, met interactieve quizzen en tekstslides.

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Element 7 - Child Development

Session 4 
T - Level in Education and Early Years 

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Learning Objectives 
By the end of the session, all learners will be able to:
  1. Recap and recall social and emotional developmental milestones. 
  2. Explore the key concepts of Mary Ainsworth's & John Bowlby's attachment theory.
  3. Explain how attachment theories influence friendships, self - control and expressing feelings.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Identify two ways in which social and
emotional development of a child aged 2
differs to a child aged 9.

Slide 3 - Woordweb

Identify 3 Social and emotional based skills for a 3 year old.

Slide 4 - Open vraag

What is attachment?
Attachment is an emotional bond between two or more children, or between a child and a key adult in their life.
Developing and understanding attachments is an important part of development in the early years.

  • Provides the foundations for socialisation, for example: friendships.
  • Helps children develop emotional security, an important skills for self - esteem.
  • Helps children develop empathy (caring for others). 

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Self - Esteem 
Children are not born knowing who they are and how they fit in to society. This is learnt through each age and stage of development and through their experiences.​
​They way children see them selves can affect the way they behaviour and react to others around them.  

Self – concept: ​
The way children see themselves and how they want to see them selves. 

Self – image: ​
This is the way children define themselves. Our gender, upbringing and where we live.

The reaction or comparison to others:​
Children’s self esteem is affected from the way others react to them or if they are compared to one of their peers. ​
For example: If a child is bullied, this reaction from their peers could affect their self – esteem.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Attachment & Self - esteem
Children also develop their self-image via the reactions of those around them.​
Children listen to what their parents, carers, friends say about them and notice how they are treated by them, especially if it is different to others.​ This also affects the type of attachment the child has with their primary carer.
This can be very positive, or rather negative.
You can see that if children feel undervalued or worthless then their ideal-self maybe considered a world apart from the self-image they have developed.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Define the term parallel play.

Slide 8 - Open vraag

John Bowlby Evolutionary theory of attachment​
Bowlby claimed attachment is significantly important to children in their Early Years and for future formation of attachments. He claimed attachment is an emotional bond​
Babies are biologically preprogrammed to form attachments ​
Attachment to the primary care giver is necessary for emotional development ​
Attachment to the primary care giver is a model for all other future attachments​
A child has an innate (born with) need to attach to one primary caregiver. ​

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

John Bowlby Evolutionary theory of attachment​
Bowlby suggested that meeting children’s physical needs alone was not sufficient enough.​

He claimed babies and children need an 'innate attachment' to one figure. This is known as Monotropy. He claimed this is a babies survival instinct.
Bowlby believed that babies need to have developed a main attachment within their 1st year (this is the critical period) ​
He also suggested that if prolonged separation occurs within the first 4 years of a child life then it would cause ling term psychological damage. ​

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Bowlby's attachment theory

Bowlby was one of the first to recognise the the quality of the first bond / relationship will act as a template for later attachments. Bowlby called this the 'internal working model'.

  • Bowlby's work has had much positive influence in the present.
  • Practitioners in hospitals and Early Years understand the importance of separation anxiety. For this reason Early Years settings have 'settling in' policies and the key person approach. 

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Internal Working Model 

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

1 benefit of Bowlby's theory
you can see so far?

Slide 13 - Woordweb

Maternal Deprivation
Bowlby's research considered children in care homes and offenders institutions, it was determined that nearly all of them experienced early separation from their mother.

He suspected that early maternal deprivation has an affect on children's social and emotional development. 

Bowlby further stated that even 1 or 2 weeks away from the mother during early years (0 - 2) can affect behaviour and the quality of relationships later formed.
 He claimed the first 2 years are the critical period for attachment.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Separation Anxiety
During Bowlby's research in to maternal deprivation, Bowlby noted that young children can become very distressed when separated from their mothers.

Separation anxiety is a term used when a child demonstrates fear or worry leaving their primary carer, they may cry, scream and follow this person around.

For this reason Bowlby referred to the importance of monotropy (attachment with 1 person)

Bowlby identified 3 stages: 
Stage 1: Protest - Young children may scream and appear distressed. They seek proximity.
Stage 2: Children can become withdrawn, quite and separated from everyone.
Stage 3:Detachment occurs when a child have given up hope and when reunited they avoid contact.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Signs of separation anxiety
  • Increased clinginess  
  • Crying when primary carer leaves the room 
  • Resistance to being put down 
  • Increased night time wake ups and crying 
  • Stranger Anxiety 
  • Emotional signals (crying / Withdrawal)

How can separation anxiety affect a child's development?

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Shared google docs task
Using the spin wheel you will be randomly allocated a new pair. 
In your Pairs you will research Mary Ainsworth's attachment theory and her Strange Situation Classification.

3 x minimum references. 

Slide 17 - Tekstslide