Chapter 4: Shaping landscapes

Chapter 4:

Shaping landscapes

  • Section 4.1.: types of exogenous forces & types of rocks
  • Section 4.2.: Weathering
  • Section 4.3.: Glaciers
  • Section 4.4.: Erosion by water (rivers and sea's)
  • Section 4.5.: sedimentation
  • Section 4.6.: Erosion by wind
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
AardrijkskundeMiddelbare schoolhavoLeerjaar 2

In deze les zitten 48 slides, met tekstslides en 14 videos.

Onderdelen in deze les

Chapter 4:

Shaping landscapes

  • Section 4.1.: types of exogenous forces & types of rocks
  • Section 4.2.: Weathering
  • Section 4.3.: Glaciers
  • Section 4.4.: Erosion by water (rivers and sea's)
  • Section 4.5.: sedimentation
  • Section 4.6.: Erosion by wind

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Section 4.1.:

Learning goals:
- Describe which forces helped to shape places like Yellowstone National Park;
- Explain the difference between weathering and erosion;
- Explain the differences between rocks.
Endogenous forces are forces that shape our planet from the inside (e.g. volcanoes, earthquakes).

Exogenous force or process changes our earth from outside. 

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Three exogenous forces:
  • Weathering;
  • Erosion;
  • Deposition.
  1. Write down the definition of these three exogenous forces;
  2. Explain why the order on the left slide is logical.

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Slide 4 - Link

Three types of rocks
  • Igneous rocks: volcanic rocks consits of solidified magma or lava (igneous means burning);
  • Sedimentary rocks: from loose sediment that because of pressure became rock;
  • Metamorphic rock: used to be a igneous or sedimentary rock but changed (=metamorphed) because of pressure into a metamorphic rock

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Igneous rock

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Sedimentary rocks

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Metamorphic Rocks

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Rock cycle
Because of heat and pressure the type of rock can change.

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Slide 10 - Link

Section 4.2.:

Learning goals:
You will be able to:
  • Describe the three different types of weathering;
  • Explain which factors affect the weathering process;
  • Explain the effects of weathering on human activities.
When rocks are formed they will be break down in smaller fragments.
This breaking down onder influence of temperature, precipitation and/or vegetation is called weathering.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Slide 12 - Video

Three types of weathering:
  1. Physical weathering
  2. Chemical weathering
  3. Biological weathering.

Read the information on pages 84 and 85 of your textbook
Link the next statements with the type of weathering:
  • You need a lot of water;
  • Happens in warm climates;
  • Happens in cold climates;
  • The rocks only crumbles;
  • Not found in deserts;
  • Substance of the rock changes

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Peltier diagram

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Slide 15 - Video

Section 4.3. Glaciers

Learning goals:
  • Desbribe and name the different components of glaciers and their landscapes;
  • Explain how glaciers formed landscapes
  • VWO: explain how glaciers formed parts of the Netherlands

Make a wordlist with all the different components of a glacier.

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Slide 17 - Video

Slide 18 - Video

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When the ice is gone the U-shaped valley with its hanging valleys becomes visible

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Ice in the Netherlands

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Section 4.4. Water and waves

Learning goals:
1. Explain how the Grand Canyon was formed. 
2. Compare and contrast erosion from rivers and the sea 
3. Explain solutions to stop coastal erosion.

Watch the movie and explain  in max 10 sentences in your own words how the Grand Canyon was formed.

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Slide 25 - Video

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

What do we need?
- Rocks with a different strength.

The overlaying harder rock doesn't erode as fast as the underlying softer rock.

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Slide 28 - Video

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Slide 31 - Video

Swash and backwash

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Slide 33 - Video

Section 4.5. Sediment deposition
1. Explain how rivers form deltas; 
2. Describe how the Mississippi delta landscape was affected by Hurricane Katrina;
3. Explain the Saffir-Simpson scale;
4. Explain what wetlands are and how they are formed;
5. Describe how the Dutch delta is protected from floodings.

If rivers flow through an area with less relief they will deposit the sediments and form a delta. Especially "flat" countries as the Netherlands are known for its deltas. 

What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in a delta?

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

When the relief becomes less, the velocity of the river will be slower the river will deposit its sediments in the form a delta. The heavier the fragments the earlier the sediment will deposit, the lighter the later.

Order these sediments from heavy to light:
Sand, pebble, clay, gravel

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Slide 39 - Video

Especially low land areas located near the tropics have a high risk of dealing with hurricanes. 
- What could happen to these areas?
- Why do hurricanes only form near the tropics?
- What is the difference between a hurricane, cyclone and typhoon?
- How do we measure the force of hurricanes?

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Slide 43 - Video

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Slide 45 - Video

Dust bowl

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Wind erosion

Slide 48 - Tekstslide