CH3 sec. 3.2 The Ancien Régime

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH3 The age of wigs and revolutions
The French Revolution
sec. 3.2 The Ancien Régime
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
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In deze les zitten 33 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 1 video.

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Memo havo 2 TTO
CH3 The age of wigs and revolutions
The French Revolution
sec. 3.2 The Ancien Régime

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Learning objectives
Main question: What were the problems in the French estate-based society in the 18th century?
  • You can explain that French society was divided into groups (estates), each with its own place and tasks.
  • You can explain that there were major differences within the Third Estate
  • You can explain how privileges caused inequality in French society.
  • You can explain why different groups within the Third Estate were unhappy.
  • You can explain how France was governed in the 18th century.
  • You can explain why King Louis XVI called an assembly of the States General.
  • You know the terms and dates from this section.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Slide 3 - Video

Estate-based society
France was a  estate-based society (standenmaatschappij).  
Your place in society (estate) was determined by birth. 
Society consisted of three estates:  
  • 1st estate: clergy  
  • 2nd estate: nobility   
  • 3rd estate: rest of society (around 98%)

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Estate-based society
Every estate had its own task and place in society:
  • 1st estate: pray
  • 2nd estate: fight (help king govern).
  • 3rd estate: work (provide food and goods) 

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Estate-based society
There were big differences within the 3rd estate.
To this estate belonged: (in order of importance!) 
  • Wealthy citizens in the cities. Merchants, lawyers, judges, bankers, etc). This group is also called bourgeoisie.  
  • Artisan (crafspeople) and shopkeepers
  • The farmers in rural areas and poorly-paid labourers in the cities.  

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Estates-based society
  • Lowest layer had to work hard (especially the farmers).
  • Many farmers only owned small pieces of land or leased (rented) land from landlords. 
  • After payment of rent and taxes, there was little left for themselves.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Estates-based society
  • Although some members of the 3rd estate (bourgeoisie) were rich they had no say in government.
  • Couldn't get an important function in Church, administration or army.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Estates-based society
Changing estates
  • From the 3rd estate you could move to the 1st estate by becoming a (low status) cleric (priest, monk, nun).
  • From the 2nd estate you could move to the 1st estate by becoming a high clergymen (bishop, cardinal, pope).
  • You could only get into the 2nd estate by birth.

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

What is an estate-based society?
A society in which there's great equality
A society divided into estates
A society that revolved around religion
A society ruled by clerics

Slide 10 - Quizvraag

How many estates were there in 18th century France?
1 estate
2 estates
3 estates
4 estates

Slide 11 - Quizvraag

What were the three estates in 18th century France?
Clergy, nobility, 3rd estate (soldiers)
Soldiers, nobility, 3rd estate (citizens/workers/farmers)
Clergy, nobility, 3rd estate (citizens/workers/farmers)

Slide 12 - Quizvraag

Only the 1st and 2nd estates had privileges:
  • Only the nobility could get high positions in the Church, administration and army. 
  • The 1st and 2nd estates didn't have to pay taxes, but could collect taxes. 
  • The 1st and 2nd estates had their own court of justice. 

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Duties of the 3rd estate:
  • Farmers had to work at least 1 day a week for the 1st and 2nd estates free of charge (= feudal services / servile duties).
  • People from the 3rd estate had to pay taxes.
  • People from the 3rd estate would receive more severe punishments when they committed a crimes than the 1st and 2nd estates. 

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

  • The 3rd estate was the only estate that payed taxes.
  • The payment of taxes led to big problems.
  • People also paid extra taxes when they bought products: for example food (3/4 of the state revenue).
  • The taxes on food were increased.
  • As a result food became very expensive: problem for the poor!

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

  • When harvests failed, farmers still had to pay taxes.
  • People of the 3rd state became even more displeased. 
  • Wealthy citizens (bourgeoisie) could afford to pay the taxes, but wanted a say in government in return.

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Which of the three estates was treated in a inequal manner?
the 1st estate
the 2nd estate
the 3rd estate

Slide 17 - Quizvraag

With estates had mostly rights and very few duties?
The farmers, citizens and nobility
The clergy and nobility
The clergy, the farmers and citizens
The citizens, clergy and nobility

Slide 18 - Quizvraag

"We do pay taxes, but have no say in government. That is unfair! "
To which group does this statement belong?
Wealthy citizens

Slide 19 - Quizvraag

A mighty ruler
  • At the end of the 18th century, Louis XVI was king of France.
  • He held all power, as it had been in France for centuries: He was an absolute monarch

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler

  • Louis XVI ruled from Versailles, his palace just outside of Paris.

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler
  • Louis XVI was advised by clergymen and nobles.
  • This type of government was later called the Ancient Régime.  

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler
  • When Louis XVI became king, there were major problems.
  • France was prosperous, but the administration almost went bankrupt around 1788.
  • Spending on wars was too high.
  • There were too many debts that in turn led to high interest rates that had to be paid.

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler
  • Another problem was the spending of the royal couple.
  • The French queen Marie Antoinette was not popular in France.

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler
  • She had very expensive clothes and organised decadent parties.
  • Her nickname was "Madam Deficit" and the French saw her as the symbol of the rich people that they hated.

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler
  • It was almost impossible for the king to levy even more taxes.
  • So a change had to be made to the tax system.

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler
  • The king came up with the solution: the nobility and clergy also had to pay taxes.
  • He needed the States General to change the tax system.

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler
  • The States General had not assembled for 175 years.
  • The representatives of the estates had to approve the plans of the king.

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

A mighty ruler
  • The States General met in May 1789, but even before negotiations about taxes began, the estates started to argue.

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

How was it that the French treasury was almost empty?
War expenses
High debts and interest rates
Spending of the royal couple
All answers are correct

Slide 30 - Quizvraag

How did Louis XVI want to solve the money problems?
Let the 3rd pay more taxes
Make the 1st and 2nd estates pay taxes

Slide 31 - Quizvraag

What was so special about Louis XVI calling for an assembly of the States General?
An absolute monarch rules alone
This hadn't happened for 175 years
A and B are both correct
A and B are both incorrect

Slide 32 - Quizvraag

Get to work
What? See whiteboard.
How? Alone 
Help? Ask neighbour. Can't figure it out? Ask teacher. 
Time? Until the end of the lesson. 
Done? Learn terms and dates. Ask teacher. 

Slide 33 - Tekstslide