In deze les zitten 37 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 4 videos.
Onderdelen in deze les
9.1.4: Picking up the pieces after the war
9. The Time of World Wars
Slide 1 - Tekstslide
What is this lesson about?
After World War I, the leaders of 27 nations met at the Paris Peace Conference to decide on the fate of Europe and large parts of the world. They signed different treaties with the losing Central Powers. The former Ottoman Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire were divided. The Treaty of Versailles shaped the fate of Germany. The Germans felt humiliated because they were severely punished. It immediately led to new tensions.
Slide 2 - Tekstslide
The Big Four
Actually The Big Three....and Italy
Slide 3 - Tekstslide
Fourteen Points: US president Wilson’s principles for peace to be used for the peace negotiations in order to end World War I
Treaty of Versailles: peace treaty that brought World War I to an end and in which the Allies
defined the future of Germany
war reparations: compensation paid by a defeated nation for the damage it inflicted during a war
League of Nations: international organisation founded in 1920 to maintain world peace and to prevent future wars; in 1946 replaced by the United Nations
national self-determination: the right of nations to form their own nation state
secular: not related to religion; in a secular state there is a separation between Church and State
Slide 4 - Tekstslide
Important date in this lesson:
1919: June 28th: Signing of Peace Treaty of Versailles
1920: founding of the League of Nations
Slide 5 - Tekstslide
On 11th November 1918, an armistice was signed. With this came an end to World War I and the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires. In Russia, a revolution raged. While the victors celebrated, Eastern Europe seemed to balance on the edge of chaos. A heavy burden lay on shoulders of the Allied leaders: they had to reconstruct the world.
The signing of the treaty of peace at Versailles, 28 June 1919
Slide 6 - Tekstslide
What you will learn in
that Germany was heavily punished by the Treaty of Versailles
how the map of Europe changed after the war
recognise the impact of the Treaty of Versailles for Germany
Use these questions to make your own summary
Slide 7 - Tekstslide
The Paris Peace Conference
The people of Europe were relieved that the Great War was over. They looked with great expectation towards the future. Most of them hoped that Woodrow Wilson, the president of the USA, would bring freedom and democracy. Wilson put himself in the position of peacemaker and had put his ideas of a better world onto paper in his Fourteen Points.
He predicted a new era: a time of freedom, peace and democracy. To reach his goals he had to negotiate with the other Allied victors.
American president Wilson was enthusiastically greeted by the people of Paris in 1919
Slide 8 - Tekstslide
1a. Wilson's "Fourteen Points" were his plan to punish Germany after the war.
Slide 9 - Quizvraag
1b. Look at Wilson's "Fourteen Points". Which 2 points were likely to meet with disapproval from Britain?
1 & 14
2 & 5
4 & 7
5 & 13
Slide 10 - Quizvraag
On 18 January 1919, the Paris Peace Conference started. Wilson and delegates of 26 other countries met at the Palace of Versailles. Every nation had its own expectations and agenda, but although hundreds of representatives were invited, the real power lay with
The Big Three: Wilson himself and the prime ministers of France (Clemençeau) and Britain (Lloyd George). During the peace conference different treaties were signed for different countries, but the most difficult issue they faced was the future of Germany. The French felt that their long time rival Germany had to be punished severely, because it had been the first to declare war and France had suffered the most. Clemenceau fanatically tried to convince the conference to keep Germany weak to ensure that it would never rise again. With this, he went against Wilson’s Fourteen Points. The USA and Great Britain were not as radical as France. They predicted that harsh punishments would trigger another war, but they still felt that Germany should take the blame.
The Big Four, 27th May, 1919. From left to right: Prime Minister David Lloyd George (Great Britain), Premier Vittorio Orlando (Italy), French Premier Georges Clemenceau, US President Wilson.
Slide 11 - Tekstslide
= attitude towards Germany
= reasons for this attitude
= main aim
Make a schematic overview in your notebook of the information in this task
Treat Germany harshly. Make the bastards pay for what they did. No mercy.
Treat Germany harshly, but don’t cripple it
Don't treat Germany too harshly.
we suffered the least.
A crippled Germany might be vengeful and start another war in the future.
A crippled Germany is less likely to become democratic.
we want to trade again with Germany, so Germany’s economy must be rebuilt quickly.
We suffered the most
. We are closest to Germany, so we fear the most of a possible future aggressive Germany.
keep our colonies safe by taking away Germany’s fleet and colonies.
Turn Germany into a peaceful, democratic
country. That’s the best way to preserve peace in the future.
Cripple Germany, make Germany pay reparations, get Alsace Lorraine back
Slide 12 - Sleepvraag
Slide 13 - Video
2c. Which country wanted the harshest treatment for Germany?
Slide 14 - Quizvraag
2a. Which Allied country sustained the most damage during the war?
Slide 15 - Quizvraag
2b. Which country needed to fear a future powerful Germany the most?
Slide 16 - Quizvraag
Germany: the main culprit
On 28th June 1919, the Allies signed the Treaty of Versailles. In it was decided that Germany:
was not allowed to have an army bigger then a hundred thousand soldiers; its fleet had to be given to the Allies
had to give its colonies to France and Britain; Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
had to give up ten percent of its territory
had to pay for the damage, caused by the war.
had to accept the full blame for WW1 (Alleinschuld)
It was mostly out of an emotion and feelings of revenge that Germany was ordered to pay 132 billion gold marks (around 380 billion euros today) as war reparations, a huge amount. The Germans were astonished that they were not allowed to participate in the meeting. As expected they were outraged when they read the treaty terms. They felt humiliated and refused to sign it. Eventually they agreed, but only because the Allies threatened to continue the war.
signing of the Treaty on June 18th, 1919, exactly 5 years after the assassination of the archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo
Slide 17 - Tekstslide
Slide 18 - Video
4. Tom and Maggie are discussing this cartoon. According to Tom, the artist agrees that Germany should pay a lot of war reparations. Maggie disagrees; she says that the artist shows that Germany should pay an unreasonable amount of money. Who is right?
On the bag ‘Reparations $ 55,000,000,000’. Underneath ‘Germany’. American political cartoon about the German war reparations, c. 1921.
Slide 19 - Quizvraag
Slide 20 - Video
Slide 21 - Tekstslide
Slide 22 - Tekstslide
A League of Nations
One of president Wilson’s most important objectives in his Fourteen Point plan was the idea of a League of Nations. He wanted a future in which countries gathered and discussed hostilities and possible conflicts before using violence. He hoped that it would cause transparency and end the secret alliances. Wilson dreamed of a more peaceful world in which countries would disarm their militaries, so global wars could be prevented. However, his League of Nations did not become what he had expected. Germany was still seen as the enemy and therefore was not allowed to participate. The newly formed Soviet Union (Russia) was also not welcome because it betrayed its allies. Even Wilson’s own country, the USA, did not agree with his plans. Membership to the League was declined by the congress. The League of Nations was already a weak institution when it started.
The official opening of the League of Nations, 15 November 1920
Slide 23 - Tekstslide
Slide 24 - Tekstslide
Slide 25 - Tekstslide
7a. Which of the following countries was a member of the League of Nations when it started in 1920?
Slide 26 - Quizvraag
Why did Germany, the USA and Russia (Soviet Union) not become members of the League of Nations?
Doesn't join because Congress voted against it
not allowed to join because they are still seen as "the enemy".
Not welcome as a member because they betrayed the Allies.
Slide 27 - Sleepvraag
7c. From what year till what year was Germany a member of the League of Nations?
Germany never joined
1920 - 1945
1933 - 1945
1926 - 1933
Slide 28 - Quizvraag
The end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Another of Wilson’s principles was the right of national self-determination: Wilson believed that a nation sharing a common language or culture should be free to form its own nation state. They should be helped in any struggle for independence from empires or other autocratic rulers all over the world. He wanted to inspire smaller countries to govern themselves democratically. The other Allies had to agree with this right of national self-determination, because many people in Eastern Europe had already declared new states after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At Paris, the Allies gave the nationalists the right to form new countries such as Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. Austria and Hungary became separate countries. The Austrians requested to become a part of Germany, but the Allies dismissed this idea because it would appear to be a reward for Germany. Millions of Germans suddenly became minorities in Poland or in Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia. This caused new tensions in Eastern Europe.
Slide 29 - Tekstslide
9. Why did the rise of new nations in Eastern Europe cause tensions?
Because the people feared war between the new nations.
Because Austro-Hungary was intending to get its former territory back.
Because the new countries did not want to govern themselves democratically.
Because millions of Germans were now minorities in some new countries.
Slide 30 - Quizvraag
Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire also fell apart after the war. At the Treaty of Sèvres, it was decided that the British would get Iraq and Palestine and the French would govern Syria and Lebanon in name of the League of Nations. Saudi Arabia became an independent kingdom. Turkey emerged as a republic under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, who rapidly transformed Turkey into a secular, modern state. He encouraged women to take of their veil and to get a job. Symbols of the Ottoman Empire were forbidden. All his work for Turkey resulted in him being called Atatürk, the father of the Turks.
Slide 31 - Tekstslide
10a. Mustafa Kemal was nicknamed Atatürk, Turkish for ‘father of the Turks’. Give two reasons from the source as to why he was given that name.
Slide 32 - Open vraag
Is this source an example of a revolution, evolution or continuity?
Slide 33 - Quizvraag
Finally, here you can write down a question about something from this lesson that you don't fully understand yet.