Session 7

Element 2 - Supporting Education 

Session 7 
T - Level Education & Early Years 
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
MathematicsFurther Education (Key Stage 5)

In deze les zitten 19 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 1 video.

Onderdelen in deze les

Element 2 - Supporting Education 

Session 7 
T - Level Education & Early Years 

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Learning Objectives 
By the end of the session all learners will be able to: 
  1. Recall, recap and review classical conditioning and its behaviourist approach. 
  2. Explore Skinner's theory of operant conditioning and apply this to Early Years and Education. 
  3. Explain the Education Endowment Foundation's Art Mathematics Mastery Project and Blooms Taxonomy.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide


Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Summarise Watson's theory of operant conditioning?

Slide 4 - Open vraag

Define 'classical conditioning' in your own words.

Slide 5 - Open vraag

The Arks Mathematics Mastery project
The Arks Mathematics Mastery project was a scheme to improve the achievement of math's and was reviewed by the Education Endowment Foundation.

Features of the programme that are informed by evidence include a systematic approach to mathematical language, frequent use of objects and pictures to represent mathematical concepts, and an emphasis on high expectations.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

The Arks Mathematics Mastery project
This project was based on the 'mastery learning approach.'
The mastery approach is where children and students are encouraged to learn and master key skills and concepts of their current topic before they can move on to the next. This approach is often used for the teaching of Mathematics. 
  • The key instant recall facts approach (KIRF) is the idea students understand a concept.
  • A blend of directional instruction and practice
  • Feedback and support from both teacher and peers

[The cycle then repeats itself] 

This concept was introduced by Benjamin Bloom and his taxonomy in 1968.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Bloom's taxonomy 
Bloom's Taxonomy is a hierarchical ordering of cognitive skills that can help teachers and students in the classroom, it is used in all educational provisions from EY to Universities. We use it here at the college. 

This is a pedagogical approach (which means it affects the way we teach).

Students are encouraged to master 1 level before the next.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Higher order thinking vs
lower order skills.

Slide 9 - Woordweb

1 Benefit of using Classical
conditioning in Early Years?

Slide 10 - Woordweb

Recap, Recall & Review 
(Link to Session 5 & 6)
Pedagogical approach to Classical conditioning to support teaching and learning.
Classical conditioning can be used in the class through questioning. 
  • Teacher asks a question (antecedent
  • Student responds 
  • Teacher praises, offers feedback or rewards student for trying. 
Direct instructions
Classical conditioning can be used to provide support in class. 
This is teacher led - the teacher leads the instructions. 
Teacher and student practice a new skill together or learn new information. 
Student this applies this through a task to allow teacher to check understanding.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Burrhus Frederic Skinner
B.F.Skinner's theory of operant conditioning key word bank. 
Operant conditioning
A method of modifying behaviour through the use of rewards and punishments. 
Positive reinforcers
Someone who positively reinforces behaviour, for example: rewarding a sticker to a child. 
Negative reinforcers
Reinforcing behaviour without a reward. Asking the child to pick up the lego they have thrown.
This when the aversive stimuli is removed to reinforce the behaviour, removing the lego from play time to modify the throwing behaviour.

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Who was B.F Skinner?
Skinner an American Psychologist , based his work on Edward Thorndike who developed his theory using a puzzle box. 
Skinner used the same concept to create a Skinner's box.

It is important to note, Skinner recognised and appreciate the work of Watson & Pavlov, however felt humans learn through their primary environment based on consequences for their behaviour. 

Skinner also expressed the importance of understanding own behaviour and how that can modify the way present our actions towards others; 

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Operant Conditioning in Early Years
In Early Years Education, operant conditioning is used to shape behaviour, helping children understand their morals, sharing and the importance of co-operating. 

Operant conditioning can help create a positive environment where the child is prepared to learn, such as: good listening skills.
Operant conditioning can be used to share good social skills with children, children can be rewarded or praised for good sharing or tidying up. 

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

What was Skinner theory?
Skinner developed the concept of his theory using a Skinner's box.
The subject (rat or pigeon) would interact with the lever. 

In experiment 1 the rat was placed in the box and accident pressed the lever, it then learnt that pressing the lever would result in a treat. 

The subject would learn that pressing the lever would result in a treat therefore it was conditioned to do so. 

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

After some time, number of bar pressing would dramatically increase and remain high until the rat’s tummy was full. 

The Skinner Box led to the principle of reinforcement, which states that the likelihood of occurrence of something depends on the consequences of behaviour.

In fact, reinforcement theory identifies when individuals are rewarded for a specific behaviour, the likelihood of occurrence of this behaviour will increase.

However as part of Skinner's theory it is important to consider if certain behaviours are not reinforced, they are less likely to be reiterated.

Slide 16 - Tekstslide
As part of Skinner's theory, in experiment 2 he removed the reward and replaced it with an electric shock.

The rat then soon learnt by pressing the leaver they would be given an electric shock. 

The rat stopped pressing the lever.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

Slide 18 - Video

Learning task 
As part of your core skills you have been asked to create a physical activity for children in preparation for your first visit. 
As part of your task today, I would like you to open this activity plan and focus on the "theory section." 
I would like you to link your activity plan either Ivan Pavlov or John Watson. When we link theory to activity plans it not about explaining the theory, it's about explaining how in this case you can 'condition' the children during your planned activity.

Slide 19 - Tekstslide