Grammar Unit 2 summary

Grammar Unit 2

  • Past simple vs Present perfect
  • Negative sentences (don't/doesn't/can't etc.)
  • Past Continuous ( Past Progressive)
  • Indirect Speech ( Reported Speech)
  • Past Perfect
  • Adjectives & Comparisons (say something about a noun)
  • Adverbs & Comparisons (say somehting about a verb/adjective/sentence)
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
Middelbare school

In deze les zitten 18 slides, met tekstslides.

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Grammar Unit 2

  • Past simple vs Present perfect
  • Negative sentences (don't/doesn't/can't etc.)
  • Past Continuous ( Past Progressive)
  • Indirect Speech ( Reported Speech)
  • Past Perfect
  • Adjectives & Comparisons (say something about a noun)
  • Adverbs & Comparisons (say somehting about a verb/adjective/sentence)

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Past Simple
  • 2nd column (irregular verbs) / verb + ed (regular verbs)
  •  Questions: Did + hele ww. (e.g. Did you go there?)
  • Negatives: Didn't + hele ww (e.g. I didn't go there)

  • Finished action (WHEN is important and given)
      I played tennis in 1993.

  • One specific event or a series of events finished in the past.
      I fell in love with Italy once.
     Yesterday I cleaned my room, threw away the garbage and 
     cooked dinner.

  • Signal words: when, in 2000, last year, this morning, ago etc. (all indicating "when"/time is given & important)

Present Perfect
  • has (he/she/it) or have (I/you/we/they) + 3rd column (irregular verbs) / has or have + verb + ed (regular verbs)
  • Questions: Has/Have + 3rd column/verb + ed (e.g. Have you already found my key? Has he looked outside his window?)
  • Negatives: Hasn't/Haven't + 3rd column/ verb + ed (e.g. I haven't found it. He hasn't looked outside his window.)
  • Action NOT finished, still going on (when is NOT important)
       I have eaten three sandwiches so far.
  • Experience in general
      Have you ever eaten snails? I have never been to France.

  • Recent action/explanation why something is now
       What has happened to her? She has broken her leg.

  • Signal words: since, for, so far, still, yet, up till now, already, never, ever, always, recently, lately etc. (WB!)

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Negative sentences 
Present Simple:
I/you/we/they work there -> I/you/we/they DON'T WORK there (don't + hele ww)
He/she/it works there -> He/she/it DOESN'T WORK there (doesn't + hele ww)

Auxiliaries (Hulpwerkwoorden):
can/could/shall/should/will/would/must/may/might/is/are/was/were/has + volt. dw / have + volt. dw -> won't/wouldn't etc.

Past Simple:
I/you/he/she/it/we/they worked there -> DIDN'T WORK there (didn't + hele ww)

Present Perfect:
he/she/it HAS DONE a great job -> HASN'T DONE (hasn't + 3rd form/verb + ed)
I/you/we/they HAVE WATCHED the news-> HAVEN'T WATCHED (haven't + 3rd form/verb + ed)

Past Continuous 

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Negative sentences 
Past Continuous 

Past Perfect
I/you/he/she/it/we/they HAD GONE to town before I visited you -> HADN'T GONE 

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Past Continuous
  1. Was (I/he/she/it) + verb + ING (e.g. I was looking, she was listening)
  2. Were (you/we/they) + verb + ING (e.g. They were looking, we were listening)

  1. To emphasize duration in the past  (I was crying for a long time when I heard the news.)
  2. To talk about something that was going on when something else interrupted this. (The thief was quietly opening the door, when suddenly the alarm went off.)

Signal words:
While, when, all afternoon, all morning etc.

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Indirect/Reported Speech

1)  "I am working till late". -> You said that you were working till late.
2) He wants his money back. -> He said that he wanted his money back
3) "I'll be able to help you." -> You said that you would be able to help me.

In indirect speech (you say what someone said) you GO BACK ONE TENSE
  • Present Simple (verb (+ S he/she/it) -> Past Simple  (irreg. = 2nd form/ reg. = verb + ED)
  • Past Simple -> Past Perfect (haD + 3rd form/verb + ED)
  • Present Perfect (has/have + 3rd form) -> Past Perfect (haD + 3rd form/verb + ED)

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Past Perfect 
A) an action taking place before another action in the past. (voorbeeld in volgende dia)
     After he had eaten his meal, he left the restaurant.

B) indirect speech (present perfect/past simple -> past perfect)
    Amy: "I have never seen anything like it!" -> Amy said that she had never seen anything 
   like it.
   Jan: " I went there earlier." -> Jan said that he had gone there earlier.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Slide 8 - Link

Adjectives & Comparisons 
Adjectives describe things/people/animals



  • net zo .... als = just as ... as / niet zo..... als = not just as .... as / hoe ....hoe (the....the)

  • THAN -> TO COMPARE (bigger than all other stars) / ALL OTHER INSTANCES -> THEN (Then she left the room.)

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Adjectives & Comparisons

    • Double the consonant when the vowel is short -> big/bigger/biggest - sad/sadder/saddest

    • Y-> I  (dirty/dirtier/dirtiest BUT shy/shyer/shyest)

    • irregular adjectives (good/better/best - bad/worse/worst - many/more/most - little/less/least = non-countable (little sugar)- few/fewer/fewest = countable (a few cookies) ETC.)

    • a few = een paar / few = weinig         a little = een beetje / little = weinig 

    •  adjectives with a number before a noun? hyphenate (-) all adjectives before the noun and drop the "s" 
         -> The twenty-pound note (but: a note of twenty pounds) , the seven-year-old girl (but: a girl of seven years old)

    Slide 10 - Tekstslide

    Adjective vs Adverbs
    Adjectives describe nouns (people/animals/things) (TB p. 142):
    a good girl, a fast car, a horrible accident (the car is fast, the accident is horrible etc.)

    Adverbs describe verbs/adjectives/sentences. FORM: ADJECTIVE + LY (TB p. 143)
    (exceptions: well/fast/hard/early etc.):
    • She listens carefully. Nicely done! She worked well.
    • It was a really horrible accident.  It's a greatly exaggerated story.
    • Surprisingly, Sinterklaas didn't show up. Apparently he brought no gifts.

    Slide 11 - Tekstslide

    to feel/smell/look/sound/taste/appear/seem (SENSE verbs) + adjective
    • Sense verbs (verbs relating to the senses) + adjective

    She seems happy.
    He feels ashamed.
    It looks delicious.
    It sounds serious!

    • The adverb "well" can be used  after look, sound, feel, appear, but the meaning is ‘healthy’.

    Tom looks very well after the operation.
    You look unwell today. Is everything all right?

    Slide 12 - Tekstslide





    Difference in meaning:
    • short stories
    • hard to follow (moeilijk)
    • fair play
    • to work hard (hard)
    • a late train (late)


    In a friendly way; in a lovely manner

    With great difficulty / impossibly

    idem (adjective = adverb)

    Difference in meaning
    • I'll see you shortly (binnenkort)
    • There was hardly anyone there (nauwelijks)
    • Fairly good player (redelijk)
    • He hardly works (nauwelijks)
    • Lately he never calls (de laatste tijd) / To arrive late (te laat)

      Slide 13 - Tekstslide

      Adverbs & Comparisons 

      He didn't sing as well as she did.

      She drove faster than he did.

      He played the piano just as badly as she did

      The colours were more perfectly matched than before.

      Slide 14 - Tekstslide

      Extra uitleg & oefenen
      • Oefenen:
      1. werkwoordtijden Unit 2:
      2. adjectives/adverbs/comparisons/reported speech:

      Oefen via Intermediate & Advanced

      • Extra uitleg:

      Weblinkjes staan in de drie volgende dias

      Slide 15 - Tekstslide

      Slide 16 - Link

      Slide 17 - Link

      Slide 18 - Link