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Illegal Fishing Lesson 1 (Secondary)

ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED & UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING  - LESSON 1
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
Social StudiesHistory+47-9 Grade9-11 Grade

In deze les zitten 32 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 2 videos.

time-iconLesduur is: 45 min

Introductie

Overfishing is emptying the ocean, with 90% of fisheries already overfished. Illegal fishing is having a big impact. This lesson explains the term IUU and the factors contributing to overfishing.

Instructies

In this lesson we explain what IUU fishing is and the impact overfishing is having on the ocean.

Time: 45 minutes

Contact: education@seashepherdglobal.org
© Sea Shepherd 2021

Onderdelen in deze les

ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED & UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING  - LESSON 1

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

This lesson is provided by Sea Shepherd.  Sea Shepherd was founded in 1977 and is a marine conservation organisation working to protect the oceans and marine wildlife.  Sea Shepherd works globally on a range of issues impacting the oceans, running numerous direct action campaigns each year.  IUU is one area Sea Shepherd is working on to help stop illegal fishing and reduce by-catch.
What you already know...
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Watch  the video

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

During the lesson we will use these icons to identify the learning actions.
Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

In this lesson we explain what IUU fishing is and the impact overfishing is having on the ocean.

INTERACTIVE JOIN – ask students to go to www.LessonUp.app

What do you already
know about illegal fishing?

Slide 4 - Woordweb

Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“What do you already know about illegal fishing?”

Slide 5 - Video

Scientists estimate that by 2050 the ocean ecosystem will be on the verge of collapse, empty of fish and marine wildlife, unless urgent action is taken on the issues impacting on the oceans and marine wildlife.

Show this video (2.53min), which explains how important all species are to our planet.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLcA31VRlRU

Discuss the video with the class and what it means.

Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.
Over 100 million tons of fish caught each year.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

High demand for fish
One of the reasons for this is overfishing of the ocean. It is estimated that over 100 million tons of fish is caught each year. Fish is the largest traded commodity in the world.

Why do you think the
demand for fish is so high?

Slide 7 - Woordweb

Ask students to complete their answer to the following question using the www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom.

“ Why do you think the demand for fish is so high? “

Part of the reason is the demand for different products, not just human consumption.

Explain that during the lesson we will explore some of these reasons and find out why.

Global population growth since 1800's.
Global population growth since 1800's.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Overfishing is a result of the growing demand for seafood as our global population rapidly increases.

The global population has risen from 1 billion in 1804 to 3.04 billion in 1960 to 7.3 billion people in 2015.  While the global population is rapidly increasing, our resources including from the ocean are decreasing.  It is estimated that over 3 billion people use fish as their main protein source.

UN estimates 90% of fish species overfished.
Two-thirds fully exploited
26% over exploited
10% healthy fisheries
UN estimates 90% of fish species overfished.

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

90% of fish species overfished
This slide shows how much of the ocean has already been overfished.  

The United Nations believes two-thirds of the world’s fisheries are fully exploited and 26% are over-exploited, which means that only around 10% of our planet's fisheries are healthy

Illegal, Unreported & Unregulated Fishing
Illegal, Unreported & Unregulated Fishing

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing
The growing demand for seafood supports the illegal fishing trade.  IUU fishing activity has big impact on the ocean ecosystem.

Let’s look at what IUU fishing means.

Illegal Fishing
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.
ILLEGAL FISHING

Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch. In basic terms they are stealing from these waters.

How can a legal fishing vessel (licensed)
be guilty of operating illegally?

Slide 12 - Open vraag

Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“How can a legal fishing vessel (licensed) be guilty of operating illegally?”

Answer – A licensed vessel could still be caught catching other fish species they have no license for, or taking amounts in excess of their quota, or fishing in areas they are not allowed to fish in.

Unreported Fishing
Unreported means that a fishing vessel may have a license with an allocated quota for fishing a particular species, such as tuna, but then catches more than their quota states and they fail to report it.


UNREPORTED FISHING

Unreported means that a fishing vessel may have a license with an allocated quota for fishing a particular species, such as tuna, but then catches more than their quota states and they fail to report it.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Unreported means that a fishing vessel may have a license with an allocated quota for fishing a particular species, such as tuna, but then catches more than their quota and they fail to report it.

When vessels are inspected the information recorded in the fishing log books are compared against what is in the fish holds of the vessel to determine if the catch has been reported correctly.

Unregulated Fishing
Unregulated refers to areas in the ocean where there may not be a quota or any regulations in place, either in that location or for the type of species.


UNREGULATED FISHING

Unregulated refers to areas in the ocean where there may not be a quota or any regulations in place, either in that location or for the type of species.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Unregulated refers to areas in the ocean where there may not be a quota or any regulations in place, either in that location or for the type of species.

There are areas of the ocean that are not subject to any regulation, generally because they are not controlled by a particular country or form part of any regulated zone.  Fishing vessels can head to these areas knowing no one is likely to be patrolling or monitoring fishing activity.

Regulating the fishing industry is a huge task, given the size of the oceans and the scale of commercial fishing operations. There are thousands of illegal fishing vessels out at sea at any moment in time.

UN estimates IUU fishing is 30% of global fishing catch.
Varies by region from 15% to 40%.
UN estimates IUU fishing is 30% of global fishing catch.  Varies by region from 15% to 40%.

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

The United Nations estimates that 30% of the global fishing catch is considered to be from Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing. This amount varies by region from 15% to 40%.
Why do you think the
rate of illegal fishing varies
between regions?

Slide 16 - Woordweb

Ask students to answer via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.

“Why do you think the rate of illegal fishing varies between regions?”

Suggested answers:
➢    Not all countries are able to patrol their waters to prevent illegal activity.
➢    It depends on the fish species in their waters and which are currently being targeted.
➢    Regulations in place to protect the area, such as marine parks.
➢    Whether the area has already been overfished.

High value species are targeted.
Tuna & Sharks
High value species are targeted.
Tuna & Sharks

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

What species are targeted?
Commercial fishing operations are targeting high value species such as tuna and albacore, as well as sharks.

Over 100 million sharks a year killed
for shark fins & shark liver oil.
Over 100 million sharks a year killed
for shark fins & shark liver oil.

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

One species under threat from overfishing by the illegal trade are sharks. Sharks are being targeted in high numbers, with over 100 million killed each year. Shark finning and shark liver oil are the main causes for the illegal trade.  Shark fins are used to make soup or herbal remedies.  Shark liver oil is used in a variety of products, including health and sports supplements.
400 sharks species.
Only 47 have healthy populations.
400 sharks species.
Only 47 have healthy populations.

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

There are around 400 known shark species.  143 shark species are currently listed as endangered, for 210 species there is not sufficient data available to determine their status but many are in decline.  That leaves only 47 shark species that are currently known to have healthy populations.

Slide 20 - Video

Show video (4.30min) from Sea Shepherd Operation Sola Stella– this campaign summary introduces the issue of IUU in Liberia and shark liver oil poachers. It also introduces some concepts for the next lessons on how illegal vessels operate.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2TFsjz8ilPg&list=PLx1pnhQVtbbCvG-aU-car7H5sOSeMuTeP&index=7

Not all fish is for human consumption.
Not all fish is for human consumption.

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

Causes of overfishing
In addition to our growing population what else is driving demand?

Not all the fish caught is for direct human consumption, a portion is used to feed other animals such as domestic pets, like cats, farmed animals like pigs, or farmed marine wildlife like prawns, salmon and tuna.

United States government data shows about 40% of the catch entering the USA is used as feed for farmed animals.

2.48 million tons of fish are used by the global cat food industry every year.  Domestic house cats eat more fish, especially tuna, then the world’s seals.

Since 1950's fishing fleet has doubled,
but the catch has reduced.
Since 1950's fishing fleet has doubled,
but the catch has reduced.

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

Scale of industrial fishing
The increasing demand for fish and a desire to make it more cost effective, cheaper for consumers, saw the development of large scale industrial fishing vessels during the mid 1900’s. The vessels and nets were developed to dramatically increase the size of the fishing catch.  The number of fishing fleets has also dramatically increased since the 1950’s.

With reducing fish numbers, so is the catch.  The fishing fleets have doubled in size since 1950’s, but the catch has reduced.

How do you think you can help?
How do you think you can help?

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

How can you help protect the ocean and marine wildlife?
With the extent of overfishing and illegal activity it is important to find ways to stop this happening. What do you think you could do to help?

Ask students for their ideas on what they can do.

The biggest impact we can all have is by reducing the demand for seafood. Our growing population and increasing demand for seafood is what drives the commercial fishing industry and IUU fishing activity.

Reduce demand for shark products.
Reduce demand for shark products.

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Reducing demand
One area to help protect sharks is to help stop the sale of shark products, like shark fin soup or shark liver oil and protect millions of sharks each year.

Ask students for ideas on how this could be achieved.

Know what are you eating or feeding pets?
Help reduce demand.
Know what you are eating or feeding your pets?
Help reduce demand.

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Reducing demand
Know what you are eating and what you feed your pets. Is what you are eating adding to species becoming endangered.  Find out where the fish you eat comes from and how it is caught.   Are there alternatives you could choose?

In IUU Lesson 3 we will discuss the issue of by-catch by the commercial fishing industry, which results in the unnecessary deaths of thousands of whales, dolphins, turtles and sharks each year.

Protecting local species.
Protecting local species.

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

Protecting local species
Find out which fish are in the oceans or rivers in your area. Have they been impacted by fishing, are there measures in place to protect them into the future? If not, find out what action you can take to help protect them

Reduce the demand for products
impacting marine life.
Reduce the demand for products
impacting marine life.

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

Harmful products
What you use could be impacting on marine wildlife – have you considered the impacts of products like krill oil, fish oil and shark cartilage tablets, fish food, cat and dog food.

We already discussed shark products, but what about krill or fish oil. What impact would overfishing of krill have on other marine wildlife, like whales?

Ask students how they could help reduce the demand for these products and educate the public on their impacts on other marine wildlife?

What else do you think you can do to help?
What else do you think you can do to help?

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Other suggestions
Ask students if they have any other ideas on what they could do to help stop overfishing.



Write down three things you have learned?

Slide 29 - Open vraag

What did you learn?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down three things you have learned?”



Write down one thing you didn't understand?

Slide 30 - Open vraag

What don’t you understand?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down one thing you didn’t understand?”

Slide 31 - Tekstslide

Next lesson
The next lesson on IUU we will discuss the regulations in place to protect the ocean and marine wildlife, and ways that IUU activity is being detected.

www.seashepherdglobal.org

Slide 32 - Tekstslide

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