3.6 Slavery in the age of reason

Chapter 3.6 Slavery in the age of reason
1 / 49
Slide 1: Tekstslide
HistoryMiddelbare schoolmavo, havoLeerjaar 2

In deze les zitten 49 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 4 videos.

time-iconLesduur is: 80 min

Onderdelen in deze les

Chapter 3.6 Slavery in the age of reason

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Slide 2 - Tekstslide


Slide 3 - Woordweb

What is this lesson about?
European traders and settlers used the existing African slave trade to supply their plantations with a workforce. The slaves lived under horrible circumstances during their journey as well as on the plantations in the New World. The abolitionist movement successfully tried to end slavery.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Main Questions

  1. How did the Europeans profit from the African slave trade?
  2. Why did European settlers use slaves on their plantations?
  3. How did the Triangular Trade work?
  4. What were the conditions in which slaves were captured, transported and sold?
  5. What was life as a slave on a plantation like?
  6. Which circumstances eventually led to the abolishment of slavery?

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Word Duty

Slavery: a system where people can own, buy and sell other people as property 

African slave trade: slave trade within the African continent 

Plantation farming: growing of crops which require a lot of manual labour on large plantations using slaves 

Dehumanising: treating people as less than humans, like animals or goods 

Transatlantic slave trade: European traders bought slaves in West-Africa and sold them to plantation owners in America 

Triangular trade: form of trade between three places where ships never travel empty 

Abolitionism: a movement of people questioning slavery and attempting to end it

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

At 2 June 2020 this cartoon was made. Which point is made by the creator of this cartoon? First write down what you see.

Slide 7 - Open vraag

Since the dawn of written history, some form of slavery has always existed. The Greeks and Romans knew slavery.
However, in Western Europe at the start of the Early Modern Period (1500-1800) slavery did not exist. In these countries it was even illegal. How did the same European countries then become the world’s biggest slave traders and users of slavery during this period? 
And how did slavery work?

First, watch the video in the next slide....

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Slide 9 - Video

Four Questions about the video "The Atlantic Slave Trade"

1.What crops were grown in the Americas that were labor-intensive and helped lead to the slave trade?
Corn, beans, and squash
Carrots, beans, and peas
Sugar cane, tobacco, and cotton
Corn, tobacco, and flax

Slide 10 - Quizvraag

2.Tribalism in Africa led to intense competition and warfare amongst tribes. Prisoners were sold into slavery and traded for manufactured goods, weapons, and rum. Which one of these goods was most valuable to tribes that looked to expand their power and influence in the region?
Manufactured goods
None of it was helpful

Slide 11 - Quizvraag

3.Once Africans boarded the slave ships for the journey to the Americas, what percentage did not survive the six to eight week voyage?

Slide 12 - Quizvraag

4.In the video you hear that many captains of slave ships were "tight packers" (at 02.47 min.).
a.What does that mean?
b.Explain why they were tight packers?

Slide 13 - Open vraag

In Africa and the Arabian world, slavery was a normal part of the economy. In this African slave trade (run mostly by Arab and some African traders), slaves were bought from poor families or captured. European countries started using African slave sellers to get their slaves in the Early Modern Period (1500-1800)

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Write down a definition of slavery

Slide 15 - Open vraag

In the 16e and 17e centuries, Spain, Portugal, England, France and the Dutch Republic conquered large areas of land in America. They turned these into plantation colonies. On these American plantations, they grew products like coffee, sugar and tobacco to sell in Europe. Many people were needed for this. First, native Americans were used as plantation workers. Sadly, they died in large numbers from diseases and bad working conditions. Then, the owners of plantations tried to attract European workers to America, but not many people wanted to make the dangerous journey. This shortage of workers for the plantations led traders to the African slave trade.


Elmina Castle was erected by the Portuguese in 1482 in present-day Elmina, Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast). It was the first trading post built on the Gulf of Guinea, so is the oldest European building in existence south of the Sahara. First established as a trade settlement, the castle later became one of the most important stops on the route of the Atlantic slave trade. The Dutch seized the fort from the Portuguese in 1637, and took over all the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1642. The slave trade continued under the Dutch until 1814; in 1872, the Dutch Gold Coast, including the fort, became a possession of the British Empire.

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

What was the main reason for traders and settlers to
turn to the African slave trade to get workers for their plantations?

Slide 17 - Open vraag

In which country is Fort Elmina?

Slide 18 - Open vraag

Which countries were for a time the owners of Fort Elmina?

Slide 19 - Open vraag

Before a slave was bought from Arab or African traders, their body and teeth were inspected. After all, a healthy and skilled slave was worth a lot of money. They were sold like cattle, which was dehumanising. The living and travelling conditions of the slaves were als dehumanising. The traders treated the slaves as products. On the ship, they would be chained below deck without much room to move. Once a day they were let out on deck to get fresh air, because if they became ill they were worthless. But still slaves died during the journey.

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

Judging by the place where this ship
sank, who are the people on the
The loss of the slaver "Luxborough Galley" in 1727, lost in the Atlantic Ocean, as part of the Triangular Trade between The Caribbean and Britain. Painting by John Cleverly the Elder, 1760
the crew
immigrants travelling to America
crew and slaves
Native Americans

Slide 21 - Quizvraag

Triangular trade
After a long and dangerous journey from Africa, the ships would arrive in Brazil, the Caribbean or North America. We call this the transatlantic slave trade. After delivering their cargo, the trade ships would take American products back to Europe, where they would sell these. With this money they would buy products to trade for slaves in Africa. This triangular trade made sure that the ships were never empty and therefore as efficient as possible.


Print shows sailor on a slave ship suspending an African girl by her ankle from a rope over a pulley. Captain John Kimber stands on the left with a whip in his hand. Published in London in 1792; attributed to Isaac Cruikshank.
source A
slaves are thrown overboard from the slaver "Zong" in 1781
Triangular Trade

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

True or false?
With the money of sold plantation products, Europeans bought weapons. They used these weapons to trade for African slaves.


Slide 23 - Quizvraag

Life as a slave in America
When they arrived in America, slaves would be sold at an auction. The more healthy and or skilled a slave was, the more they were worth. After being bought by one of the plantation owners, the slave would be his property until their death or until their owner decided to sell them. On the plantations there were more slaves than Europeans. To control the slaves, the owners set very strict rules. Breaking these rules meant that a slave would be punished severely. Punishment, torture and the death penalty were used to terrorise them and to make sure they would not rebel against their owners.


source B
Slave Auction, United States. From the book by Henry Bibb, "Narrative of the life and adventures of Henry Bibb, an American slave", written by himself (New York, 1849), p. 201.

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Look at source B.
What does it tell you about slave families being sold?
families were kept and sold together
family members would be sold seperately

Slide 25 - Quizvraag

Explain your answer to the previous question
using information from source B.
(that means you need to describe what you can see in source B)

Slide 26 - Open vraag

Do you think source B is a reliable (betrouwbare) source?
Explain your answer.

Slide 27 - Open vraag

SOURCE A. An 18th century engraving of how a slave ship was loaded.
source C
An 18th century engraving of how a slave ship was loaded.

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

SOURCE D - Written in 1789 by Olaudah Equiano, who was kidnapped and enslaved aged 11, but eventually bought his freedom, settled in Britain and campaigned against the slave trade.
"The airlessness and the heat in the hold, added to the number of us (crowded so each had scarcely room to turn over) almost suffocated us. We sweated heavily; the air soon became unfit to breathe, and brought on a sickness among the slaves, many of whom died. 
Our wretched situation was made worse by the rubbing of the chains, now unbearable. The 
toilet buckets were full of filth and the children often fell into them and almost drowned. The shrieks of the women and groans of the dying made the hold a place of almost inconceivable horror."

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

From a book about Surinam written by John Stedman who was with an army sent there in 1744 to crush a slave rebellion
A planter gets out of his hammock at dawn and goes to the porch around his house where breakfast is waiting for him. He is served by the most attractive of his young male and female slaves. After breakfast the overseer reports on which negroes deserted, died, fell sick, recovered, were caught, bought or born. 
Captured runaways or anyone who has been a slow worker, or broken any other rule, are brought up for 
punishment. Without being allowed to speak in their defence, they are hung from the beams of the porch, or a nearby tree and beaten with whips, while the master and overseer walk up and down talking.
The planter then walks or rides over part of his estate and, at ten, has another meal. He reads, plays chess or otherwise amuses himself until the heat of the day, when he goes to his hammock. 
He rises at about 3 o'clock, washes and eats another meal. At 6 o'clock the overseer returns and makes another report. There are more punishments. Then they decide on the work for the next day. 

Slide 30 - Tekstslide

Write down four words from source D that support source C .

Slide 31 - Open vraag

source F
An engraving of a Surinam plantation, printed in 1820

Slide 32 - Tekstslide

Give two examples from source E that are supported by source F.

Slide 33 - Open vraag

Movement to end slavery
Slavery was accepted in the 17e and 18e centuries, but not everybody supported it: some religious groups and Enlightenment philosophers believed all humans were created equal and should be treated equally. These ideas started a movement to end slavery: abolitionism. 
The abolitionist movement slowly gained more and more support. In the 19e century, the slave trade became illegal in most European countries. Slavery itself, however, took another half a century to be abolished.


"Am I Not a Man and a Brother?", 1787 medallion designed by Josiah Wedgwood for the British anti-slavery campaign

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

Slavery had been around in Africa long before the arrival of the Europeans.

Slide 35 - Quizvraag

European traders often travelled deep into the heart of
Africa to capture slaves.

Slide 36 - Quizvraag

American plantation owners started using African slaves because there were no alternatives readily available.

Slide 37 - Quizvraag

The African slaves were better off in the hands of the
European traders than they were in the hands of fellow Africans

Slide 38 - Quizvraag

During their voyage to America slaves were treated well, because they were so valuable.

Slide 39 - Quizvraag

Slaves were very cheap to buy and therefore slave traders as well as slave owners treated their slaves very poorly.

Slide 40 - Quizvraag

The trans-Atlantic slave trade takes place across the Indian Ocean.

Slide 41 - Quizvraag

In the eighteenth century, the practice of slavery was still widespread in Europe.

Slide 42 - Quizvraag

Enlightenment ideas about human rights, equality and freedom inspired abolitionism..

Slide 43 - Quizvraag

Home of a plantation owner.

Slide 44 - Tekstslide

The abolitionists were able to abolish the slave trade and slavery completely in the early nineteenth century.

Slide 45 - Quizvraag

Slave huts

Slide 46 - Tekstslide

Slide 47 - Video

Slide 48 - Video

Slide 49 - Video