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Review lesson

Chapter 5 (kerboodle) 
Breathing and respiration
Review lesson
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
Biologiehavo, vwoLeerjaar 2

In deze les zitten 31 slides, met interactieve quizzen en tekstslides.

time-iconLesduur is: 45 min

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Chapter 5 (kerboodle) 
Breathing and respiration
Review lesson

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Respiration
Getting energy from food 
  • Our fuel is glucose
  • Oxygen is needed to break down glucose (breathing)

Because oxygen is needed we call it:
Aerobic respiration 

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Testing for carbon dioxide
  • Lime water goes cloudy when CO2 is added

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Respirometer
  • Soda lime takes up CO2
  • Removal of oxygen reduces the volume and pressure
  • Coloured water moves towards the organisms 


*The distance moved by the fluid is therefore affected only by the oxygen taken up and not by the carbon dioxide given out.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Types of respiration
-Areobic respiration (with oxygen)
-Anaerobic respiration (without oxygen)

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Types of Anaerobic respiration
Fermentation by yeast (Anaerobic)
Glucose -> alcohol + carbon dioxide + energy

Anaerobic respiration by muscles
Glucose -> Lactic acid + energy

Extra oxygen breaks down lactic acid
This extra oxygen that is needed is called: Oxygen debt

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Energy produced 

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Treathing the air
-Moist
-Warmed
-Filtered and cleaned


Epiglottis

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Mucus
Dust and germs get trapped
Cilia (little hairs) move it up your nose an throat

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Lung structure
-Trachea 
-Bronchus
-Bronchioles
-Alveoli
-Cartilage

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Gas exchange
-Oxygen diffuses into the water lining
  It diffuses through to the blood

-Carbon doixide diffuses into the lungs

-Blood transports oxygen and 
  carbon dioxide

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Pleural membrane/cavity
2 pleural membranes (around the lungs and muscles)
Inbetween -> pleural cavity with liquid 

-Prevents seperation of the 2 layers
-Allow volume of lungs to change
-Lubricates the sruface -
  lungs can move easily

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Thoracic breathing in
  1. Intercostal muscles contract
  2. Ribs move up and pull pleural membrane open
  3. Pleural membrane pulls the lungs open
  4. Air is pulled into the lungs
Abdominal breathing in
  1. Abdominal muscles contract
  2. Diaphragm moves down
  3. Diaphragm pulls pleural membrane open
  4. Pleural membrane pulls the lungs open
  5. Air is pulled into the lungs

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Thoracic breathing out
  1. Intercostal muscles relax
  2. Ribs move down and push pleural membrane closed
  3. Pleural membrane pushes the lungs closed
  4. Air is pushed out of the lungs
Abdominal breathing out
  1. Abdominal muscles relax
  2. Diaphragm moves up
  3. Diaphragm pulls pleural membrane closed
  4. Pleural membrane pulls the lungs closed
  5. Air is pushed out of the lungs

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Lung volume
Tidal volume = volume you breath out while you are resting
Vital capacity = the most air you can breath out

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Effects of Smoking
  • Tar -> damages teeth and gums -> Causing decay teeth
  • Loss of smell due to damage nerve endings nose
  • Damaging cilia, which clean the air
  • Less oxygen uptake in the alveoli due to toxic carbon monoxide gass exchange instead of oxygen uptake
  • Restriction of the blood vessels and harm of the blood vesssel cells 
  • Mutations in the DNA --> Cancer 

The good news --> Recovery possible! 

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Asthma
  • Inflammation of the airways
  • airways narrow and swell and produce extra mucus

  • Exact cause is unkown
  • Allergies
  • premature birth
  • smoking during pregnancy

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

inhalators
-Relax the muscles -> widen up the airways
-Anti inflammatory substances stop the inflamation

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

During respiration glucose is broken down to release
A
Water
B
CO2
C
Energy
D
Oxygen

Slide 19 - Quizvraag

Energy is released in our cells inside these cell structures
A
Nucleus
B
Mitochondria
C
Ribosomes
D
Chloroplasts

Slide 20 - Quizvraag

The gas produced during respiration
A
CO2
B
O2
C
H2O
D
N

Slide 21 - Quizvraag

A sheet of muscle that separates the thorax from the rest of the body
A
Intercostal muscles
B
Diaphragm
C
Heart muscles
D
skeletal muscle

Slide 22 - Quizvraag

-->
<--
<--
<--
Alveoli
Trachea
Bronchiole
Bronchus

Slide 23 - Sleepvraag

Small air sacs that make up our lungs and make gas exchange possible
A
Bronchi
B
Trachea
C
Alveoli
D
Cartilage

Slide 24 - Quizvraag

when you breath in the intercostal muscles and diaphragm
A
relax
B
contract

Slide 25 - Quizvraag

What result would you expect after 12 hours?
A
Lime water in tube A is cloudy
B
Lime water in tube B is cloudy
C
Lime water in both tubes are cloudy
D
nothing will happen in this set-up

Slide 26 - Quizvraag

What is the purpose of tube b?
A
To test if the lime water is working
B
It is just there for the questions
C
This acts as a control experiment to correct for unexpected effects
D
It has no purpose

Slide 27 - Quizvraag

Breathed in air will turn lime water cloudy quicker than breathed out air
A
True
B
False

Slide 28 - Quizvraag

Muscles between the ribs
A
Diaphragm
B
Intercostal muscles
C
Skeletal muscle
D
Striped muscle

Slide 29 - Quizvraag

Extra oxygen that is needed to break down lactic acid:
A
Oxygen debt
B
Oxygen credit
C
Break down debt
D
Lactic acid debt

Slide 30 - Quizvraag

A type of anaerobic respiration in yeast that makes alcohol
A
Aerobic respiration
B
Fermentation
C
Neutrilization
D
Alcoholization

Slide 31 - Quizvraag