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H4 & V4_Grammar Unit 2

Grammar Unit 2 
Irregular verbs

Past Simple & Used to / Would

Past Simple vs Present Perfect

Past  Simple vs Past Perfect

Past Simple vs Past Continuous

Asking questions & Making negative sentences

Adjectives/Adverbs/Comparisons

VWO4 : Phrasal verbs / Prefixes (ir-/un-/in- etc. -> put in front of a word) and Suffixes (-ment/-able/-ion etc. -> at end of a word)









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Slide 1: Tekstslide
EngelsMiddelbare schoolhavoLeerjaar 4

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Grammar Unit 2 
Irregular verbs

Past Simple & Used to / Would

Past Simple vs Present Perfect

Past  Simple vs Past Perfect

Past Simple vs Past Continuous

Asking questions & Making negative sentences

Adjectives/Adverbs/Comparisons

VWO4 : Phrasal verbs / Prefixes (ir-/un-/in- etc. -> put in front of a word) and Suffixes (-ment/-able/-ion etc. -> at end of a word)









Slide 1 - Tekstslide

 Unit 2 - tenses (ww-tijden) - regular & irregular verbs
Irregular verbs - study list in your small booklet - p. 88-91 (know all forms and meaning E-N and N-E)
1st form.        2nd form.        3rd form
Go                     went                  gone

Past Simple = A) regular verbs -> verb + ed; B) irregular verbs = 2nd form 


Present Perfect = A) regular verbs -> has (he/she/it) or have (I/you/we/they) + verb +ed ; B) irregular verbs  = has/have + 3rd form


Past Perfect = A) regular verbs -> had (voor alles: I/you/he/she etc.) + verb +ed; B) irregular verbs -> had + 3rd form


Past Continuous = was (I/he/she/it) or were + verb + ing










Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Past & present simple - present perfect & past perfect 
simple  vs continuous tenses

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Simple vs continuous tenses

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Present Perfect Signal words
  • just
  • yet
  • never
  • already
  • ever
  • so far
  • up to now
  • recently
  • since
  • for
  • all morning etc.  (this morning -> If it is still going on!)

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Past Simple signal words
  • when
  • ago
  • last week/year/time etc.
  • In 1945 etc.
  • yesterday
  • this morning (looking back/finished)


Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Asking questions/making negative sentences

Asking questions:
Past Simple = Did + verb (=hele werkwoord) / 1st form. -> Did he go there?
Present Perfect = Have/has + 3rd form (regular verbs = verb  + ed) -> Has he done the dishes yet?
Past Perfect =  Had + 3rd form (regular verbs = verb + ed) -> Had he come over before she left?
Past Continuous = Was/were + verb + ing -> Were they doing their homework?

Negative sentences:
Past Simple = Didn't + verb (=hele werkwoord) / 1st form. -> He didn't go there.
Present Perfect = Haven't/hasn't  + 3rd form (regular verbs = verb + ed) -> He hasn't done the dishes yet.
Past Perfect = Hadn't + 3rd form (regular verbs = verb + ed) -> He hadn't come over before she left.
Past Continuous = Was/were + verb + ing -> They weren't doing their homework.

hasn't/haven't/hadn't/wasn't/weren't -> ook has not etc.





Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Used to/didn't use to - Would
To talk about the past:

used to /didn't use to = situatie en handeling in het verleden 
I used to live at my grandparents' when I was young(=situatie)
I used to skate during winters when I was young (= handeling)

would = handeling in het verleden (alleen gebruiken voor handeling in het verleden!)
I would skate during winters when I was young

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Phrasal verbs (V4 test)
phrasal verbs = verb + preposition (voorzetsel)
Het werkwoord heeft in combinatie met een voorzetsel (op/in/uit/naar etc.) een betekenis. Het werkwoord heeft met elk voorzetsel een andere betekenis. Bijvoorbeeld:

To fill in
To fill out
To fill up

To break down
To break up
To break even

To get out
to get up
to get even 

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Irregular verbs

For every test/every period,
you need to know the irregular verbs (1st/2nd/3rd forms) 
by heart!

Study the list in your small booklet,
practice on the website www.ego4u.com/grammar/irregular verbs
(link on next slide)

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Slide 12 - Link

Past Simple (I walked/I swam etc.)
Form: 
  • regular verbs + ed (I walked)
  • irregular verbs = 2nd form (I caught)
  • questions = did + verb (1st form) ( Did you catch...?)
  • negative = didn't + verb (1st form) (I didn't catch...)
Use: 
- A finished action in the past. You know when it happened. 
We met in 1987.         

- Actions which follow each other in a story 
Mary walked into the room and stopped. She listened carefully.  

- A past situation or habit 
As a child,I used to walk miles on the beach with my dog every day. 

 
 Past Continuous (I was walking/They were swimming etc.)
Form:
  • was (I/he/she/it) / were (you/we/they) + verb + ing
e.g. I was sleeping all morning yesterday.
Use:
- To express a (longer) activity in progress before (& after) a  particular time in the past. (verb = longer action)
At 7.00 this morning, I was having breakfast. 

 - To indicate something took long, or at least it felt that way 
The dentist was drilling for 3 minutes! 

- To express a longer action that was already going on (P.Cont.) and was interrupted by the shorter action (Past Simple)
When the phone rang, I was having a bath. 

- Scene descriptions in a story 
It was a beautiful day. The sun was shining and the birds were singing. 

 

Affirmative  

 

Negative 

 

 

Question 

 

 

I  

 

 

I  

  

 

  


  

He  

was talking. 

 

He  

wasn’t talking. 

 

 Was 

he 

 talking? 

She 

 

 

She 

 

 

 

she 

 

It 

 

 

It 

 

 

  

it 

 

We  

 

 

We  

 

 

 

we  

  

You  

 were talking. 

 

You  

 weren’t talking. 

 

 Were 

you 

 talking? 

They 

  

 

They 

  

 

  

they 

  


Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Past Simple (I walked/I swam etc.)
NOTE:


When you have a series of actions in the past, use the past simple:

I went to the store, bought milk, eggs and flour, drove home and made pancakes.




 
 Past Continuous (I was walking/They were swimming etc.)
vs Past Simple:


  You can have the following:

Two longer actions going on at the same time:
I was playing the violin while he was listening.

A longer action that was already going on, interrupted by a shorter action:
I was walking home when he rang.


NOTE: verbs like picked up, opened, closed = short actions = past simple

NOTE: like, love, hate, to be etc. = not in past continuous 
 


Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Slide 15 - Link

Past Simple (I went/I walked etc.)
  • A finished action in the past & you know when it happened (when = mentioned) 
-> He worked as a pilot in 2002.

  • Actions which follow each other in  a story (series of actions in the past)
-> She went to the store, and bought milk and cookies.

  • A past action or habit
-> As a child I used to dream a lot.



Form:
  • regular verbs: hele ww  + ed
  • irregular verb: - 2nd form/list
  • negative/questions: did/didn't + hele ww

Present Perfect (I have gone/she has walked etc.)
  • An unfinished action that started in the past and is still going on)
signal words: for, since
-> He has been really scared since the robbery.

  • The action is over, but he effects are still felt. Result is important, not "when"sth. happened and this isn't mentioned in the sentence.
signal words: ever, never, before, often, how many times

  • The RECENT past ACTION has a present RESULT (when = NOT important/NOT mentioned)
signal words: yet, already, just

Form:
  • regular verbs: has (he/she/it) /have + hele ww + ed
  • irregular verbs: has (he/she/it) / have + 3rd form/list (past participle)
  • negative/questions: has(n't)/have(n't) + 3rd form (past participle)

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Slide 17 - Link

Past Perfect
Had + 3rd form (irregular verbs) /verb + ed (regular verbs)

Earlier action in the past:
I had cleaned the table before he came in.
Before he came in, I had cleaned the table

After I had cleaned the table, he came in.
He came in after I had cleaned the table.

  • Earlier action/First action in the past = past perfect
  • Later action/Second action in the past = past simple

               past perfect                       past simple                                                          
______________X___________________X_______________________________now

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Slide 19 - Link

Slide 20 - Link

Adjectives vs Adverbs - SB p. 65-66
  • The red car. -> adjective modifies/says something about a noun (een bijvoegelijk nmw. zegt iets van een zelfsandig. nmw. - woord waarvoor je de/het/een kan zetten)

  • The completely red car -> adverb modifies an adjective ("red" in this case) (een bijwoord zegt iets van een bijvoegelijk nmw.)

  • Fortunately, she drives the completely red car really well. -> adverbs modify an entire sentence; an adjective or another adverb ("really" modifies "well") (bijwoorden zeggen iets van 1) de hele zin, 2) een bijvoegelijk nmw., 3) andere bijwoorden en 4) van werkwoorden - bijv. to drive well)



STUDY THE LIST OF ADJECTIVES/ADVERBS/COMPARISONS IN YOUR SMALL BOOKLET/IN OF COURS ONLINE (UNIT 2 -"START MET LEZEN")

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

 Adverbs - SB p. 65-66
Adverb = adjective + -LY or irregular form (study these!)


Changes in ending:
adjective ending in -y ->- ily (easily; noisily; funnily)
adjective ending in -cal -> -ically (practically; fantastically)
adjectives ending in -LE -> LY (simply, subtly)

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

Slide 23 - Link

Adjectives with number
  • The fifty-pound note
  • I have a note of fifty pounds.


  • The 80-year-old grandmother.
  • The grandmother who is 80 years old


  • The 13-year-old girl
  • The girl who is thirteen years old

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Comparisons - SB p. 68-69
  • Adjective 1-syllable word - er/est (big - bigger than - the biggest)

  • Adjective (> or =) 3-syllable words - more/most (beautiful - more beautiful than - the most beautiful)

  • Adjective 2-syllable words - er/est or more/most (SB p. 68)



  • Adverbs (ending in -LY) - more/most (She danced more beautifully than he did.)

  • Adverbs that have the same form as adjectives (for example: fast, late) - er/est


  • STUDY Irregular adjectives & adverbs  (good/better/best; bad/worse/worst; few/fewer/fewest; little/less/least etc.)

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Slide 26 - Link

NOTE: Adjective (NO ADVERB)  for verbs of perception
 (Gebruik een bijvoegelijk naamwoord wanneer het werkwoord een zintuig betreft)
  • look, 
  • taste, 
  • smell, 
  • feel 
  • sound 

->express sensation or appearance, they are followed by adjectives, not adverbs (because the adjective says something about the noun and NOT about the verb in these cases):

  • It smells good. NOT: It smells well.
  • The food looks bad. NOT: The food looks badly.
  • Your idea sounds good. NOT: Your idea sounds well.
  • This fabric is nice and soft, it feels good. NOT: This fabric is nice and soft, it feels well.

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

Irregular comparisons - study SB
little/less/least (non-countable = niet-telbaar) -> little milk/gold/love/hate = material/abstract words
few/fewer/fewest (countable = telbaar)  -> chair/spoon/people = words that have plurals (=meervoudsvorm), can be counted

much/more/most (non-countable) -> much milk/gold/love/hate
many/more/most (countable) -> many chairs/spoons/people = words that have plurals, can be counted

late/later/last (de laatste qua binnenkomst)
late/later/latest (de nieuwste)
the late Mr. Steve Jobs = wijlen

old/older/oldest
old/elder/eldest (familierelaties)

far/farther-further/farthest-furthest
far/further -> aanvullende (further details; further inquiry)

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Irregular comparisons - study SB

little - smaller - smallest (baby/child - leeftijd/grootte)

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

Countable/non-countable
fewer/less cars than....
fewer/less money than ....

much/many cars
much/many money


the more, the ....
is he as good as .....
is he just as good as
more and more





Slide 30 - Tekstslide

Slide 31 - Link