2.1 Trade and industry in the Dutch Republic

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH2. The age of regents and rulers
The Golden Age
sec. 2.1 Trade and industry in the Dutch Republic
1 / 44
Slide 1: Tekstslide
GeschiedenisMiddelbare schoolhavoLeerjaar 2

In deze les zitten 44 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 5 videos.

time-iconLesduur is: 50 min

Onderdelen in deze les

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH2. The age of regents and rulers
The Golden Age
sec. 2.1 Trade and industry in the Dutch Republic

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Golden Age

Slide 2 - Woordweb

Slide 3 - Video

Learning objectives
  • You can explain how the economy of Holland changed in the Late Middle Ages.
  • You can name causes for the growth of trade in Holland (1450-1540)
  • You can describe the economy of the Dutch Republic.
  • You can explain how Amsterdam became the most important trading city in the Netherlands.
  • You can explain how the economy of the Dutch Republic became part of the world economy and the roles that the VOC and WIC had in it.
  • You can make links between triangular trade, slave trade and slavery on plantations.
  • You know the terms and dates of this section.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Slide 5 - Video

Slide 6 - Video

Baltic trade
Around 1450 Dutch Hanseatic towns
like Deventer, Kampen and Zwolle 
traded with Baltic region . Baltic routes
  • Bought wood and grain
  • Sold salt and herring
End of fifteenth century Hanse trade 
went into decline. Towns in Holland, 
like Hoorn, Enkhuizen and Amsterdam took over Baltic trade.
Marshy grounds of Holland were unsuitable for growing grain.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Causes of the growing trade in Holland 1450-1540
1. Changes in agriculture
Commercial agriculture = Cultivation of agricultural products, such as hemp and flax, for trade purposes. 

2. Growing Baltic trade. Import of grain and wood.
Moedernegotie = most important trade

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Staple market
Around 1540 Amsterdam became a 
staple market for wood and grain.

Products were stored in warehouses
first and sold when prices had 

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Amsterdam becomes the most important trading city
  • During the fifteenth and sixteenth 
century Antwerp was the centre of world trade.
  • Change > Transfer of trade from Antwerp to 
Amsterdam (main port of the Netherlands.
  1. Fall of Antwerp 
  2. New inventions (fluyt = fluitschip, 
       new type of windmills)

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Transfer of trade from Antwerp to Amsterdam
1585 Fall of Antwerp 
  • Spanish troops conquered Antwerp.
  • Protestant merchants and craftspeople 
fled to Holland and Zeeland.
  • Blockade of the river Scheldt
  • Transfer of trade from Antwerp to Amsterdam.
  • Amsterdam world's most important 
commercial centre.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Consequences of the Fall of Antwerp
Favourable consequences for the Republic:
  • Flemish merchants transferred trade to Amsterdam and other cities.
  • Flemish craftsmen brought industry to Amsterdam and other cities. Woven fabrics (cloth) and diamonds industry benefited economy.
  • Staple market trade changed from a market exchange (resources) to a market for luxury products.
  • Greater demand for labourers. Population growth > growing and expanding cities. For example the Amsterdams canal ring.

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Everything revolves around trade
Commercial capitalism = form of economy in which merchants try to make as much profit as possible.

Merchants let workers / industry process raw materials from distant countries and then sold them for profit.

Profit (capital) was reinvested in new ships, products or exploring new trade routes.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

What isn't a cause for the growing trade in Amsterdam (1450-1540)?
Baltic trade
Commercial agriculture
French protestant refugees

Slide 14 - Quizvraag

What doesn't match Baltic trade?
pepper and coffee
grain and wood

Slide 15 - Quizvraag

After 1585 Antwerp became the world's most important commercial centre.

Slide 16 - Quizvraag

How do call the place where purchased products were first stored in warehouses and only sold when prices were high enough?

Staple market
Free market

Slide 17 - Quizvraag

Before 1585, there was a lot of trade in luxury products in Amsterdam.

Slide 18 - Quizvraag

Slide 19 - Video

A world economy
Sixteenth century
Voyages of discovery by Spain and Portugal.
  • Spice trade
  • Spread of Christianity (Roman Catholicism)
  • Expanding political power

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

A world economy
Trade in new products:
  • Sugar, cocoa, coffee and tobacco (America)
  • Pepper, nutmeg, foil and cloves (Asia)

Economy that covered all parts of the world > rise of a global economy

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

Around 1600 the demand for spices grew. Merchants from Holland and Zeeland wanted to benefit from the spice trade.

1595 First Compagnie that succesfully trades in Asia ('voorcompagnie'). 

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

1602 VOC (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) set up.
Companies decided to collaborate.
  • Avoid competition among themselves
  • Better protection against the Portuguese.

  1. Many people in Holland and Zeeland invested money in the company and shared in its profits. The VOC was one of the first multinationals.
  2. Special privileges

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

The VOC was given special privileges by the States-General.
  • Trade monopoly in the East Indies on spices, tea, silk, etc.
  • Construct forts
  • Fight wars
  • Sign treaties
Batavia was the most important trading post.
The VOC would use violence to enforce the trade monopoly and to get the best price for products. The VOC was very succesful.

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

WIC (West-Indische Compagnie) founded in 1621
  • Trade monopoly on slave trade and luxury products like tobacco, sugar, cocoa and coffee in America and Africa.
  • Trading posts in West Africa and colonies with plantations in America (Surinam en de Dutch Antilles)
  • Privateering (piracy)
  • Triangular trade
The WIC was less succesful than the VOC. 

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

What was the reason why Dutch merchants wanted to join the spice trade around 1600?
More people wanted to buy spices.
Spices became cheaper.

Slide 29 - Quizvraag

What doesn't match the VOC?
Set up in 1621
Spices, silk and tea
Trade monopoly
East Indies (Asia)

Slide 30 - Quizvraag

What doesn't match the WIC?
Set up in 1621
Slaves, sugar and tobacco
Trade monopoly
East Indies (Asia)

Slide 31 - Quizvraag

What are the two main characteristics of the VOC and WIC?
Ordinary people can share in its profits by buying shares
Special privileges
Trade in Asia

Slide 32 - Quizvraag

Source 1

Slide 33 - Tekstslide

Source 2

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

Source 3

Slide 35 - Tekstslide

Slavery = system in which people own, buy and sell other people as property.

In Africa, the Arab world and large parts of the world outside Europe, slave trade was part of the economy.

Slide 36 - Tekstslide


Slide 37 - Video

17th century Europeans establish trading posts and plantations in America.

  • Indians died from plantation work and disease.
  • European traders brought slaves from West Africa to work on  plantations.

Slide 38 - Tekstslide

African slave trade was part of triangular trade.

Trade between West-Africa, America and Europe. 
  • In West Africa, Europeans bought slaves in return
     for example guns, alcohol and copper objects. 
  • WIC sold the slaves in America to plantation owners. In Surinam and the Antilles many plantations were owned by people from the Republic. The slaves were not paid for the hard work on the plantations.
  • The ships then sailed back to Europe, loaded with sugar and tobacco.

Slide 39 - Tekstslide

Europeans made money from :
  • Trade in African slaven
  • Sale of products produced by slaves (free labor)

Slide 40 - Tekstslide

Europeans had no problem with the slave trade:

  • According to them, Africans belonged to a different, inferior human species. Europe was ahead of Africa in terms of technology.
  • According to them, African culture was less than their own, for example because Africans were not Christian.

Slide 41 - Tekstslide

Only Europeans were involved in slavery.

Slide 42 - Quizvraag

Europeans in the 17th century had no problems with slave trade. Which answer doesn't belong here.
Europeans would go out and hunt for African slaves themselves.
Europeans looked down on African culture.
Europeans looked down African religion.
Europeans thought Africans were a inferior human race.

Slide 43 - Quizvraag

Get to work
What? See whiteboard.
How? Alone 
Help? Ask neighbour. Can't figure it out? Ask teacher. 
Time? Until the end of the lesson. 
Done? Learn terms and dates. Ask teacher. 

Slide 44 - Tekstslide