modals of request higher level

Name as many modals as you can
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Name as many modals as you can

Slide 1 - Open vraag

less common?

Slide 2 - Open vraag

When are modal verbs used? 
Some things seem likely, but we don’t know for sure. In these cases, you can use the modal verbs should and must to show probability without certainty.
Her parents must be so proud.
My baby brother should be asleep by now. 

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

In situations when something is possible but not certain, use the modal verbs could, may, or might.
Judging by the clouds, it might rain today.
She may become the youngest pro soccer player ever. 

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

The modal verb can shows whether or not the subject is able to do something, such as perform an action or demonstrate an ability. Likewise, the negative form, cannot or can’t, shows that the subject is unable to do something.
She can speak three languages, but none of them well.
You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink. 

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Asking permission
If you want to ask permission to do something, start your question with can, may, or could. Traditionally, in more formal and polite usage, may is better for permission; if you ask “can I go to the bathroom?” it could be misinterpreted as, “do I have the ability to go to the bathroom?” (However, in modern usage may and can are both perfectly acceptable options when describing possibility or permission.)

May I leave early today?
Could I play too?

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Similarly, if you want to ask someone else to do something, start your question with will, would, can, or could.
Would you get that box off the top shelf?
Will you turn that music down? 

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

What if you want to recommend something, but not command it? If you’re giving suggestions or advice without ordering someone around, you can use the modal verb should.
You should try the lasagna.
That guy should wear less cologne. 

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

On the other hand, if you want to command someone, use the modal verbs must, have to, or need to.
You must wash your hands before cooking.
You need to be here before 8:00. 

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Obligation or necessity
Modal verbs can express a necessary action, such as an obligation, duty, or requirement. Likewise, the negative form expresses that an action is not necessary. Use the same modal verbs as with commands: must, have to, or need to.
We have to wait for our boss to arrive before we open.
You don’t need to come if you don’t want to. 

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

To show an ongoing or habitual action—something the subject does regularly—you can use the modal verb would for the past tense and will for the present and future. The phrase used to is also acceptable if you’re talking about a habit that no longer exists.
When I lived alone, I would fall asleep with music.
I will arrive early and leave late to every meeting. 

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Present tenses
After the modal verb, use the word be followed by the –ing form of the main verb.
[modal verb] + be + [verb in -ing form]
I should be going. 

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Present perfect continuous
You can add a modal verb before a verb in the present perfect continuous tense without changing much. However, when using a modal verb, you must always use “have,” never “had,” even if the subject is third-person.
[modal verb] + have been + [verb in -ing form]
She must have been sleeping. 

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Past tenses and present perfect
Putting a modal verb in the simple past, past continuous, and present perfect tenses is a little trickier.

For starters, two modal verbs in particular have a simple past tense: can and will. If you want to use either of those in any of the past tenses, you must first conjugate them into their past-tense form:
can -> could
will -> would

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

past tense of modals other than can or will:
All the others remain the same, although some can’t be used in the past at all. Modal verbs often deal with hypotheticals, but if an action already happened in the past, it can’t be hypothetical. These are mostly for speculating about the past, such as wondering “what if . . .”
None of the modal verbs can be used in the past perfect or past perfect continuous. 

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Slide 16 - Tekstslide