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Illegal Fishing Lesson 2 (Secondary)

ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED & UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING - LESSON 2
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
ScienceGeography+47-9 Grade9-11 Grade

In deze les zitten 29 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 2 videos.

time-iconLesduur is: 45 min

Introductie

Overfishing is emptying the ocean, with 90% of fisheries already overfished. Illegal fishing is increasing this. In this lesson we will look at some of the practices being used to protect the ocean and marine wildlife, and how IUU activity is being detected.

Instructies

During this lesson we will further explore IUU fishing activity, by looking at some of the practices being used to protect the ocean and ways that law enforcement are using to detect illegal fishing activity.

Time: 45 minutes

Contact: education@seashepherdglobal.org
© Sea Shepherd 2021

Onderdelen in deze les

ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED & UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING - LESSON 2

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

This lesson is provided by Sea Shepherd.  Sea Shepherd was founded in 1977 and is a marine conservation organisation working to protect the oceans and marine wildlife.  Sea Shepherd works globally on a range of issues impacting the oceans, running numerous direct action campaigns each year.  IUU is one area Sea Shepherd is working on to help stop illegal fishing and reduce by-catch.
What you already know...
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Watch  the video

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

During the lesson we will use these icons to identify the learning actions.
Protecting the ocean and detecting illegal fishing.
Protecting the ocean and detecting illegal fishing.

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

During this lesson we will further explore IUU fishing activity, by looking at some of the practices being used to protect the ocean and ways that law enforcement are using to detect illegal fishing activity.

INTERACTIVE JOIN – ask students to go to www.LessonUp.app

Slide 4 - Video

Overfishing
This slide shows an emptying ocean.  Explain to students that scientists estimate that by 2050 the ocean ecosystem will be on the verge of collapse, empty of fish and marine wildlife, unless urgent action is taken on the issues impacting on the oceans and marine wildlife.

Show this video (1.11 min) which explains some of the key issues impacting the ocean and marinelife.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_SK9-Zr71g

IUU Fishing
30% of the global commercial fishing catch taken illegally.

How do we stop this.


IUU FISHING


30% of the global commercial fishing catch taken illegally.

How do we stop this.

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Last lesson summary
In the last lesson we discussed the meaning of IUU and the causes behind the increasing demand for fish. We also learned the extent of illegal fishing taking place, with around 30% of the global commercial fishing catch taken illegally.

Now we are going to look at some of the measures in place to stop IUU activity.

Regulations to protect eco-systems.
Regulations to protect eco-systems.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Practices to protect marine wildlife
In many countries and regions there are laws and regulations in place to help regulate fishing and protect marine ecosystems. These regulations help to provide the framework for the legal fishing industry and the basis upon which law enforcement agencies can monitor and enforce fisheries crimes.   

International law of the sea.
International law of the sea.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

International laws
In international waters there are regulations in place, agreed to via the United Nations.  These include regulations on restricting the use of driftnet fishing in international waters.

CITES
Convention for International Trade on Endangered Species (CITES)
is an agreement by those that are party to the convention to prohibit and monitor the trade in endangered species, to try and safe guard the future of endangered species.


CITES

Convention for International Trade on Endangered Species (CITES)
is an agreement by those that are party to the convention to prohibit and monitor the trade in endangered species, to try and safe guard the future of endangered species.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

CITES
The Convention for International Trade on Endangered Species (CITES) is an agreement by those that are party to the convention to prohibit and monitor the trade in endangered species, to try and safeguard the future of endangered species.

Countries that have signed up to CITES must prohibit any trade in fauna or flora that are listed by CITES.  However it is the members of CITES who must agree which species will be covered, not all endangered species are currently covered by the convention.  There are over 180 parties to the convention, which covers around 35,000 species of animals and plants.

EEZ & MARINE SANCTUARIES
Each country that borders the ocean has territorial waters, referred to as an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). 

Within the EEZ countries can establish marine sanctuaries providing protection in ecologically vital areas,




EEZ & MARINE SANCTUARIES
Each country that borders the ocean has territorial waters, referred to as an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).

Within the EEZ countries can establish marine sanctuaries providing protection in ecologically vital areas.

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Marine zones and sanctuaries
Each country that borders the ocean has territorial waters, referred to as an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).  The EEZ is included in the United Nations Law of the Sea, where coastal states assume jurisdiction over this area and its marine resources.  The EEZ extends no more 200 nautical miles from shore, but cannot infringe on a neighboring countries EEZ.

Within the EEZ countries can establish marine sanctuaries providing protection in ecologically vital areas, such as areas where fish breed or where ecosystems which have been damaged and need to recover.   Within these zones fishing and other activities are strictly controlled or prohibited.

RFMO
Regional fisheries management organisations (RFMO) are international bodies that help to regulate fishing. 

Cooperation between different countries on the management of some highly migratory species is important.

RMFO

Regional fisheries management organisations (RFMO) are international bodies that help to regulate fishing.

Cooperation between different countries on the management of some highly migratory species is important.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

RFMO
Regional fisheries management organisations (RFMO) are international bodies that help to regulate fishing.  Cooperation between different countries on the management of some highly migratory species is important.

Where a species moves between different countries and international waters, individual country management of fishing runs the risk of the species being overfished quickly. Setting quotas for the region helps to protect the species from this and creates a framework for tackling illegal fishing activity in these areas.

Licensing fishing catches and limits.
Licensing fishing catches and limits.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Fishing permits
Along with RFMO’s countries can set up licensing systems to issue permits for fishing.  Both commercial and recreational fishermen can be subjected to restrictions via the permit system, limiting the location for fishing, the species allowed to be caught, restrictions on and catch limits.

Why do you think it is important
to have laws that apply in
international waters or
between countries?

Slide 12 - Woordweb

Ask students to respond via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom.

“Why do you think it is important to have laws that apply in international waters or between countries?”

Detecting illegal fishing.
Detecting illegal fishing.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Detecting and stopping illegal fishing
One way to reduce overfishing is by detecting and detaining illegal fishing operations and monitoring the catches of legal fishing vessels.  With around 30% of the global fishing catch taken illegally this can have a huge impact.

AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)
Locating a vessel can be done by monitoring AIS on a ships radar. 

Shipping vessels are required by law to have on board an Automatic Identification System (AIS).

AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)

Locating a vessel can be done by monitoring AIS on a ships radar.

Shipping vessels are required by law to have on board an Automatic Identification System (AIS).

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Automatic Identification System (AIS)
Locating a vessel can be done by monitoring AIS on a ships radar.  Shipping vessels are required by law to have on board an Automatic Identification System (AIS), which shows the location and the identification details of the vessel. By monitoring the position of vessels, authorities can detect illegal activity in protected areas, such as marine reserves.

However sometimes vessels switch off their AIS, which could be an indication for suspicious activities.  

SATELLITE MONITORING
Satellites allow fishing vessels to be monitored all over the world.

Which allows vessels to be tracked, even without their AIS switched on. 
Image: Global Fishing Watch


SATELLITE MONITORING

Satellites allow fishing vessels to be monitored all over the world.

Which allows vessels to be tracked, even without their AIS switched on. 

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Satellite monitoring
Satellites allow fishing vessels to be monitored all over the world. Which allows vessels to be tracked, even without their AIS switched on.  Satellite monitoring also allows law enforcement vessels patrolling for illegal activity to find the location of potential illegal activity.

Slide 16 - Video

Patrol vessels
The best way to deter illegal activity is to patrol the ocean.  In areas where illegal poachers are heavily operating the only option is to patrol the waters.   Using a patrol vessel that is faster than the fishing vessels allows law enforcement to chase down poachers and board their vessels for inspection. Inspection means taking a look at their log books, checking their registration documents, fishing license and what catch is in the ships hold.

Some countries don’t have the resources to undertake these patrols, this is where Sea Shepherd has been able to help by providing ships and crew to assist in law enforcement activities.

Show the video (4.36 min) from Sea Shepherd’s Operation Jodari in Tanzania.  This shows some of the illegal activities taking place and the impact patrolling the EEZ.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9Q00iciLuc&list=PLx1pnhQVtbbDkZfN2nz9qqd8bVVLOGkkl

Law enforcement agencies
Each country has its own authorities, such as fisheries agencies, coast guard, navy or marines that monitor fishing activities and tackle the issue of IUU activity.

REGIONAL COOPERATION
 IUU issues span whole regions.
Countries are starting to work together to form taskforces that coordinate responses against illegal activities, including fishing.

In south east Africa eight countries have formed FISH- I Africa to tackle these issues, this includes Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia and Tanzania.

REGIONAL COOPERATION
IUU issues span whole regions.
Countries are starting to work together to form taskforces that coordinate responses against illegal activities, including fishing.

In south east Africa eight countries have formed FISH- I Africa to tackle these issues, this includes Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia and Tanzania.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

Regional cooperation
To combat IUU fishing activities, which span whole regions, countries are starting to work together to form taskforces that coordinate responses against illegal activities, including fishing.  In south east Africa eight countries have formed FISH- I Africa to tackle these issues: Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia and Tanzania.

Why do you think
international cooperation
on fishing is important?

Slide 18 - Woordweb

Ask students to respond via www.LessonUp.app or discuss in classroom.

“Why do you think international cooperation on fishing is important?”

WHICH COUNTRY IS RESPONSIBLE?
Poachers operate without respect for borders. International cooperation is important.  

These vessels can be owned in one country, be registered and flagged in another country or have false papers and have crew that are sourced from a number of countries.


WHICH COUNTRY?

Poachers operate without respect for borders. International cooperation is important.  

These vessels can be owned in one country, be registered and flagged in another country or have false papers and have crew that are sourced from a number of countries.

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Which country
Given that poachers operate without respect for borders international cooperation becomes more important.  

These vessels can be owned in one country, be registered and flagged in another country or have false papers and have crew that are sourced from a number of countries.

Bringing them to justice, when they are found fishing illegally in a country’s waters, may not always be easy.

INTERPOL
Interpol is an international police force involved in operations to monitor and coordinate the evidence required to arrest illegal operators, no matter where they are in the world. 

INTERPOL

Interpol is an international police force involved in operations to monitor and coordinate the evidence required to arrest illegal operators, no matter where they are in the world. 

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

INTERPOL
Interpol is an international police force involved in operations to monitor and coordinate the evidence required to arrest illegal operators, no matter where they are in the world.  

Illegal fishing vessels are often well prepared, they may have papers showing the vessel is registered in multiple countries, most will be forged. All vessels must have a country of registration, otherwise they are deemed to be a pirate vessel.  

Illegal vessels will frequently change the name and flag that appears on their ship, making it difficult to track them when they enter the various ports around the world. 

Once a vessel is identified as having been operating illegal its flag state; country of registration will be asked to remove them from their register.  

Vessels that break the law and fish illegally can be blacklisted by countries or RMFO’s.  If they return they will be arrested.   Where evidence has been gathered against an illegal operator, with the aim to prosecute the ship or it cannot be located, Interpol can issue what is called a Purple Notice against them.  A purple notices requires participating countries to detain the vessel once it enters their waters.

A Purple Notice is for the provision of information on modi operandi, procedures, objects, devices or hiding places used by criminals. Which means that Interpol are looking for information on the ships activities and evidence against them, such as fishing gear that has been used to fish illegally.  It could be the vessel has tried to evade an investigation into their activities by fleeing a port, or a countries waters, or they have false registration details.



Name two methods that are in place
to protect marine wildlife?

Slide 21 - Open vraag

Ask students to answer using the www.LessonUp.app:

“Name two methods that are in place to protect marine wildlife?”


Name three ways in which IUU activity
can be detected?

Slide 22 - Open vraag

Ask students to answer using the www.LessonUp.app:

“Name three ways in which IUU activity be detected?”

SUSTAINABLE FISHING
Conservation perspective:

All marine species have healthy thriving populations, that keep ecosystems in balance, like coral reefs.
Species are genetically strong and have sufficient numbers to withstand other threats, such as climate change impacts on the ocean or plastic pollution.

SUSTAINABLE FISHING

Conservation perspective:

All marine species have healthy thriving populations, that keep ecosystems in balance, like coral reefs.
Species are genetically strong and have sufficient numbers to withstand other threats, such as climate change impacts on the ocean or plastic pollution.

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

23 Sustainable – what it means
There are two ways to view the term sustainable.
From a conservation perspective organisations like Sea Shepherd look to see that all marine species have healthy thriving populations, that keep eco-systems in balance, like coral reefs. This means the species is genetically strong and has sufficient numbers to withstand other threats, such as climate change impacts on the ocean or plastic pollution.

SUSTAINABLE FISHING
Commercial fishing are focused on sustainable fisheries management.

Supplies the need for food for human consumption, now and into the future.

 Enough fish left to grow and breed, so they can catch the same amount of fish again the next year. 


SUSTAINABLE FISHING

Commercial fishing are focused on sustainable fisheries management.

Supplies the need for food for human consumption, now and into the future.

 Enough fish left to grow and breed, so they can catch the same amount of fish again the next year. 

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Sustainable – fishing industry view
Commercial fishing has a different perspective. They are focused on sustainable fisheries management.

Sustainability in this context means that it supplies the need for food for human consumption, now and in the future. So as long as there is enough fish left to grow and breed, so they can catch the same amount of fish again the next year, it is deemed to be sustainable.  “Sustainable” means maintaining the current level, keeping things as they are.

Overfishing in this context is fishing that depletes a population to a level that reduces its population. Overfished populations can still be sustainable, but it could also ultimately lead to that fisheries collapse.

SOUTHERN BLUEFIN TUNA
Critically endangered due to overfishing

'Sustainable' fisheries still operate subject to quotas.







SOUTHERN BLUEFIN TUNA

Critically endangered due to overfishing

'Sustainable' fisheries still operate subject to quotas.

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Sustainable fishing example
The Southern Bluefin Tuna is an example of this. Populations have been destroyed due to fishing prior to quotas being introduced. The current numbers are now so low that the Southern Bluefin Tuna is deemed to be a critically endangered species.  Yet a regulated fishing industry still exists with fishing quotas issued each year to continue catching a critically endangered species.

Sustainable fisheries management is about a species surviving to provide future food for humans, whereas the conservation perspective is about species thriving, the impacts on the whole eco-system if the species is lost and also looking at other threats to that species.



Write down three things you have learned?

Slide 26 - Open vraag

What did you learn?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down three things you have learned?”



Write down one thing you didn't understand?

Slide 27 - Open vraag

What don’t you understand?
Ask students to answer the following question using www.LessonUp.app or discuss in the classroom.  

“Write down one thing you didn’t understand?”

By-catch and destructive fishing methods.
By-catch and destructive fishing methods.

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Next lesson we will discuss the issue of by-catch and the fishing methods that are being used and their impacts.
www.seashepherdglobal.org

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

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