cross

Chapter 3: Earthquakes and volcanoes




Chapter 3: Earthquakes and volcanoes
Section 3.1.: Layers and plates
Section 3.2.: Plate movements
Section 3.3.: Earthquakes
Section 3.4.: Effects of earthquakes
Section 3.5.: Volcanoes
Section 3.6.: Living close to a volcano
1 / 47
volgende
Slide 1: Tekstslide
AardrijkskundeMiddelbare schoolhavo, vwoLeerjaar 1

In deze les zitten 47 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 9 videos.

Onderdelen in deze les




Chapter 3: Earthquakes and volcanoes
Section 3.1.: Layers and plates
Section 3.2.: Plate movements
Section 3.3.: Earthquakes
Section 3.4.: Effects of earthquakes
Section 3.5.: Volcanoes
Section 3.6.: Living close to a volcano

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Section 3.1.
The earth's layers and plates

Learning goals:
1. Describe how the earth’s layers fit together. 
2. Describe what tectonic plates and tectonic plate boundaries are. 
3. Describe the movements of plate tectonics in the past. (VWO)

The earth seems to be one solid sphere, but if you look more closely you'll notice that the earths crust moves very slowly. 

These movements are caused by the inner structure of the earth.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Layers of the earth
Mantle: thickest layer of the earth, solid but also moveable.

Crust: layer we live on, solid and very thin. Made of rocks.
 

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Layers of the earth
Inner core: solid made out of nickel and iron. Very warm (4000 and 6000 degrees C.)

Outer core: liquid also made out of nickel and iron. Cooler around 3000 - 4500 degrees C.
 

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Slide 5 - Video

Plate tectonics
The earth consists of tectonic plates, these plates moves in a process we call plate tectonics or continental drift.
These movements cause earthquakes.
Some plates are small (e.g. Carribbean Plate) others are huge (e.g. Eurasian plate).

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Basalt
Granite

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

We have two types of tectonic plates:

Oceanic plates:
Found under oceans, thin (up to 10 kilometres) but heavier. Made of basalt.




Continental plates:
Found under continents, thick (up to 75 kilometres) but lighter. 
Made of granite.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Plate tectonics is nothing new.
   

The earth's history is filled with plate movements, 300 million years ago all the plates formed one huge supercontinent called Pangea.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Slide 12 - Video

Section 3.2.
Moving plates
Learning goals:
1. Describe in which direction the tectonic plates move. 
2. Expain why earth’s tectonic plates move 
3. Describe the effect of the three plate movements 
4. Describe the ridge-push and slab pull mechanisms

The earth seems to be one solid sphere, but if you look more closely you'll notice that the earths crust moves very slowly. 

These movements are caused by the inner structure of the earth.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

Effects of the convection current

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Three different plate movements
  • Plates move away from each other = divergent movement
  • Plates move toward each other = convergent movement
  • Plates slide alongside each other = transform movement

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

Make a list with the three plate movements and write behind each plate movement the effect the plate movement has. 

Use pages 57 - 60 
in your text book.

Divergent plate movement:
e.g. earthquakes

Convergent plate movement:
e.g. earthquakes

Transform plate movement:
e.g. earthquakes

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Slide 19 - Video

What is the difference between magma and lava?

Slide 20 - Open vraag

Slide 21 - Video

Section 3.3.
The earth's layers and plates


Learning goals:

1. Explain why an earthquake takes place 
2. Describe the effect of earthquakes 
3. Describe the effect of tsunamis
4. Explain how earthquakes in the Netherlands occur 




Most heavy earthquakes take place near plate boundaries. And especially plates that move convergent or slide along each other.

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

Slide 23 - Link

Richter scale
We express the intensity or magnitude of an earthquake on the so called Richter scale.  

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

We measure earthquakes with a machine called a seismograph. 

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Read the first paragraph on page 62.
What's the difference between the hypocentre and epicentre of an earthquake?

Slide 26 - Open vraag

An earthquakes has direct but also indirect effects. Name examples of these.

Slide 27 - Woordweb

When an earthquake occurs on sea it can cause a tsunami.  
A tsunami killed thousands of people in 2004 and 2011. 


Most large earthquakes happen on plate boundaries and are caused by the movement of tectonic plates.

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Slide 29 - Video

Earthquakes in the Netherlands.



Sometimes also the Netherlands are hit by an earthquake, but these have a lower magnitude.
1. In South-Limburg these earthquakes happen because of smaller faults in the plate.
2. Because of the production of natural gas in Groningen.

Slide 30 - Tekstslide

Slide 31 - Link

Section 3.4.
Comparing the effects of earthquakes


Learning goals:
1. Compare the effects of earthquakes in LEDCs and MEDCs 
2. Explain why the effects of earthquakes vary between LEDCs and MEDCs 



The effects of earthquakes are different in LEDC's then in MEDC's.

LEDC = less economical developed country

MEDC = more economically developed country

Slide 32 - Tekstslide

LEDC

More casualties and deaths but less economic damage
MEDC


Less casualties and deaths but more economic damage

Slide 33 - Tekstslide



Nowadays it's easier to predict some natural disasters.
To minimalize the effects of natural disasters we use hazard management. 

This deals about preventing casualties by e.g. evacuation plans or use modern building technology.

Slide 34 - Tekstslide

Slide 35 - Tekstslide

Slide 36 - Link

Section 3.5.
Volcanoes


Learning goals:
1. Describe what happens during a volcanic eruption
2. Explain what the effects of volcanic eruptions are
3. Describe three different types of volcanoes (shield, composite and hot spot) 





Not all the volcanoes are the same. In this section we discuss three different types of volcanoes.

If the magma comes out of the volcano during a eruption it is called lava.

Slide 37 - Tekstslide

Slide 38 - Video

Composite volcano
Shield volcano

Slide 39 - Tekstslide

Hot-spot volcano

Slide 40 - Tekstslide

Slide 41 - Tekstslide


Make a list with all the keywords in section 3.5. and write the correct definition behind the keywords.


Where do we find the different types of volcanoes?

Which volcanoes have the heaviest eruptions and why?

Slide 42 - Tekstslide

Slide 43 - Video

Slide 44 - Video

Slide 45 - Video

Section 3.6.
Living close to a volcano


Learning goals:
1. Describe what the benefits of volcanoes are 
2. Explain why the benefits differ between LEDCs and MEDCs 







Why do people want to live near a volcano?

Slide 46 - Tekstslide

Positive effects of a volcano

Slide 47 - Woordweb