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Interrogative and relative pronouns

Planning
  • Explanation part I: 
Relative pronouns

  • Explanation part II: Interrogative pronouns


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Slide 1: Tekstslide
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In deze les zitten 19 slides, met interactieve quiz en tekstslides.

Onderdelen in deze les

Planning
  • Explanation part I: 
Relative pronouns

  • Explanation part II: Interrogative pronouns


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Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Relative pronouns
Let's first go over the basics, when do we use 'who', 'whose', 'where', 'that' and 'which'?
You may skip this step and go to slide 9 if this is information you're already familiar with.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Relative pronouns
Use: We use RP (betrekkelijke voornaamwoorden) to refer to people, things and animals, places and to indicate that someone or something possesses something 

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Who
We use this RP to refer to people 

This is the man who always walks around town with a paper bag over his head.

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Whose
We use this RP to indicate that someone/something possesses* something else.

Whose money is this? 

* translation verb: bezitten

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Which
We use this RP to refer to animals or things.

This is a picture of our dog, which we recently adopted from a shelter.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide



That
This RP may sometimes be used instead of who (for people) and which (for animals/things). 

I loathe people that / who constantly make fun of others.

The speech that / which my classmate gave at the graduation ceremony was brilliant.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Where
We use this RP when we want to refer to an actual place.

Until I went on holiday to Seoul, South Korea, I didn't know where it was located on the world map.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

That was the easy part.  


It gets more difficult when you become aware of the fact that RPs who and that are also dependent of the type of sentence they're in.

Task: Compare these two sentences:
1 My sister, who loves cooking, is going to participate in the annual marathon.
2 My sister who loves cooking is going to participate in the annual marathon

Do you notice a difference in meaning? 

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

You were right if you thought: 'Yes, there is a difference.'

The first sentence consists of a non-defining relative clause and the second of a defining relative clause.

In Dutch: In de eerste zin bevat het gele stuk tekst (bijzin met niet-noodzakelijke informatie) extra informatie over jouw zus die mee gaat doen aan de marathon.  

In de tweede zin bevat het zwarte stuk tekst (bijzin met noodzakelijke informatie) essentiële informatie. De spreker geeft namelijk  specifiek aan dat zijn/haar zus die van koken houdt  mee gaat doen aan de marathon (dit wordt gedaan om verwarring te voorkomen met een andere broer/zus)






1 My sister, who loves cooking, is going to participate in the annual marathon.

2 My sister who loves cooking is going to participate in the annual marathon

I

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Now our question to you is: Can we replace the RP 'who' in each sentence for the RP 'that'? (zie vorige dia)
A
Yes
B
No

Slide 11 - Quizvraag

The correct answer was B
Remember from this point on: 
In sentences containing defining relative clauses (bijzinnen met essentiële informatie) such as sentence 2 in the previous slides, you may use RP that to replace RPs who or which .

In sentences containing non-defining relative clauses (bijzinnen met niet-noodzakelijke informatie) such as sentence 1, it is incorrect to use RP that

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Stay with us, we're almost done with part I of the explanation.

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

2 more things. The first thing is:
That we leave out who/which/that when the relative clause contains a subject:

Is your uncle Terence the man who  I thought was so handsome?
You have sent me a picture which you had sent me before


Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are 'vragende voornaamwoorden' in Dutch, and as the term already reveals, we use them solely in interrogative sentences (vraagzinnen)

Who       /       Whose       /      Whom       /     What   /    Which

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

The final thing is..That you have to learn the following combinations by heart
with + whom = met wie (people)
with + which = waarmee (things) 
about + whom = over wie (people)
about + which = waarover (things)

See grammar 24.6 (p. 149 of your textbook) for examples

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

In short (part I):
  • Who = wie
Used to refer to people

  • Whose = wiens
Used to refer to the possessions of people / animals / things

  • Whom = wie (use this after a preposition (voorzetsel)
With whom did you go out last night?



Slide 17 - Tekstslide

In short (part 2):
  • What = wat / welke / wat voor
Used when mentioning a large / unlimited number of things
What countries would you like to visit?
What are you especially interested in?
  • Which = wat / welke / wat voor
Used when mentioning a limited number of things / small amount
Which do you prefer, soap series or documentaries?
Which movie did you enjoy best, Forrest Gump or The Fault in our Stars?

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

End of presentation
Good luck practising / studying.

BOHA & CHAY

Slide 19 - Tekstslide