What does overfishing mean for the ocean? (Secondary) - Lesson Six

Lesson 6 - How do we reduce overfishing?
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
Social StudiesHistory+39th,10th Grade

In deze les zitten 13 slides, met tekstslides en 1 video.

time-iconLesduur is: 45 min


Lesson 6 – How do we reduce overfishing? This lesson discusses the regulations and tools in place to address overfishing and illegal fishing. Learning activities:  Research ways to help stop overfishing/illegal fishing.  Collate ideas on what students could do to stop overfishing and create action plans to implement these ideas.


Time: 45 minutes

Contact: education@seashepherdglobal.org
© Sea Shepherd 2022


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Lesson 6 - How do we reduce overfishing?

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

This lesson is provided by Sea Shepherd.  Sea Shepherd was founded in 1977 and is a marine conservation organisation working to protect the oceans and marine wildlife.  Sea Shepherd works globally on a range of issues impacting the oceans, running numerous direct action campaigns each year. 
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Watch  the video

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

During the lesson we will use these icons to identify the learning actions.
Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Tackling overfishing

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

In the previous lessons we have discussed overfishing, why it occurs, methods used and the issues of by-catch and illegal fishing. Now that we better understand the issues and causes, we need to take a look at what can be done to tackle the issue and protect the ocean ecosystem.
Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Regulating fishing - licensing

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Countries can set up licensing systems to issue permits for fishing. Both commercial and recreational fishermen can be subjected to restrictions via the permit system, limiting the location for fishing, the species allowed to be caught, restrictions and catch limits.
In international waters there are regulations in place, agreed upon via the United Nations.  These include regulations on restricting the use of driftnet fishing in international waters.

Each country that borders the ocean has territorial waters, referred to as an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).  The EEZ is included in the United Nations Law of the Sea, where coastal states assume jurisdiction over this area and its marine resources.  The EEZ extends no more 200 nautical miles from shore and cannot infringe on a neighboring countries EEZ.

Within the EEZ countries can establish marine sanctuaries providing protection in ecologically vital areas, such as areas where fish breed or where ecosystems which have been damaged need to recover. Within these zones fishing and other activities are strictly controlled or prohibited.

Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Regulating fishing - Regional Fisheries Management

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMO) are international bodies that help to regulate fishing.  Cooperation between different countries on the management of some highly migratory species is important. Where a species moves between different countries and international waters, individual country management of fishing runs the risk of the species being overfished quickly. Setting quotas for the region helps to protect the species from this and creates a framework for tackling illegal fishing activity in these areas.

Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Regulating fishing - CITES

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

The Convention for International Trade on Endangered Species (CITES) is an agreement by those that are party to the convention to prohibit and monitor the trade in endangered species, to try and safeguard the future of endangered species. Countries that have signed up to CITES must prohibit any trade in fauna or flora that are listed by CITES.  However, it is the members of CITES who must agree which species will be covered. Not all endangered species are currently covered by the convention.  There are over 180 parties to the convention, which covers around 35,000 species of animals and plants.
Illegal Fishing
Illegal fishing means that the fishermen enter the territorial waters of a country or regulated marine zone without permission or without a license for the fish they intend to catch.

They are stealing from these waters.


Satellite monitoring


Regional cooperation

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

One way to reduce overfishing is by detecting and detaining illegal fishing operations and monitoring the catches of legal fishing vessels.  With around 30% of the global fishing catch taken illegally this can have a huge impact.
Locating a vessel can be done by monitoring AIS on a ships radar.  Shipping vessels are required by law to have on board an Automatic Identification System (AIS), which shows the location and the identification details of the vessel. By monitoring the position of vessels, authorities can detect illegal activity in protected areas, such as marine reserves.  However sometimes vessels switch off their AIS, which could be an indication for suspicious activities.  

Satellites allow fishing vessels to be monitored all over the world. Which allows vessels to be tracked, even without their AIS switched on.  Satellite monitoring allows law enforcement vessels patrolling for illegal activity to find the location of potential illegal operating fishing vessels.
The best way to deter illegal activity is to patrol the ocean.  In areas where illegal poachers are heavily operating the only option is to patrol the waters.  Using a patrol vessel that is faster than the fishing vessels allows law enforcement to chase down poachers and board their vessels for inspection. Some countries don’t have the resources to undertake these patrols, this is where Sea Shepherd has been able to help by providing ships and crew to assist in law enforcement activities.

To combat IUU fishing activities, which cover whole regions, countries are starting to work together to form taskforces that coordinate responses against illegal activities, including fishing.  In south east Africa eight countries have formed FISH- I Africa to tackle these issues: Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Somalia and Tanzania.

Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Interpol is an international police force involved in operations to monitor and coordinate the evidence required to arrest illegal operators, no matter where they are in the world.  
Vessels that break the law and fish illegally can be blacklisted by countries or RMFO’s.  If they return, they will be arrested.   When evidence has been gathered against an illegal operator, with the aim to prosecute the ship or when a specific vessel cannot be located, Interpol can issue what is called a Purple Notice.  A purple notice requires participating countries to detain the vessel once it enters their waters.

A Purple Notice is a request to participating countries to assist with the provision of information on modi operandi, procedures, objects, devices or hiding places used by criminals. Which means that Interpol are looking for information on the ship’s activities and evidence against them, such as fishing gear that has been used to fish illegally.  It could be the vessel has tried to evade an investigation into their activities by fleeing a port, or a countries waters, or having false registration documents.

Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Reducing by-catch

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

We previously discussed ways to stop by-catch, including monitoring catch, installing turtle exclusion devices and streamers to deter birds.
Introduction to IUU fishing and the impact of overfishing.
Reducing demand for fish.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

One area to help protect sharks is to help stop the sale of shark products, like shark fin soup or shark liver oil.

Know what you are eating and what you feed your pets. Is what you are eating adding to species becoming endangered? Find out where the fish you eat comes from and how it is caught.  Are there alternatives you could choose?

Slide 11 - Video

This video (3.21min) from Sea Shepherd’s Operation Sola Stella shows how patrolling has helped to stop illegal fishing and protect the local marine ecosystem.


Slide 12 - Tekstslide

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Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Refer Teachers Guide for Learning Activities.