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9.1.3 Fighting the War _ TEACH_

Discuss: What was this document about and how did it affect the course of the war?
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
HistoryMiddelbare schoolhavo, vwoLeerjaar 3

In deze les zitten 48 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 2 videos.

Onderdelen in deze les

Discuss: What was this document about and how did it affect the course of the war?

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

The Zimmermann telegram: the direct cause for the USA to declare war on the Central Powers.
The encoded letter
The decoded letter
The letter published

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Lesson 9.1.3 Fighting the war

1917: a decisive year: 
  • A:        The United States joins the war
  • B:        Russia surrenders after the Russian Revolution
A:  causes:
  • Sinking of Lusitania (1915)
  • fear that democracy would vanish in Europe if the Allies lost
  • fear that US banks would not get their loans back if the Allies lost
      Direct cause:
  • the Zimmermann Telegram







Slide 3 - Tekstslide


9.1.3: World War 1: Fighting the War

9. The Time of World Wars

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

What is this lesson about?
During World War I, industrially made weapons were used on huge scale for the first time in history. Aeroplanes, poison gas, and the tank were used, but generals on both sides still employed outdated tactics. They did not seem to care about the loss of lives. Millions of soldiers died in useless assaults, just to conquer a few kilometres. The war changed in 1917, when the USA joined on the side of the Allies and when Russia signed a ceasefire with Germany. After four years of fighting, the war ended in 1918.







Slide 5 - Tekstslide

people in this lesson
Wilson
president
USA
Nicholas II
emperor (Czar)
Russia
Lenin
revolutionary
Russia

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Word Duty






U-boat: German submarine

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: peace treaty between the new government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers, signed in March 1918

total war: when every civilian in a country has to focus on winning the war

armistice: agreement by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting; truce








WORD DUTY

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Important dates in this lesson:

1915
        May:        Lusitania is sunk
1916
        Feb. :       Battle of Verdun
       June:        Battle of the Somme
1917
        Feb:         February revolution in Russia. Tsar Nicholas abdicates Russian throne
        Apr:         USA declares war on the Central Powers
        Oct:         October Revolution in Russia. Lenin in power.
1918
        March:     Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
        Nov. 9:     Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates
        Nov. 11:   Armistice. End of WW1

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

What you will learn in 
this lesson
  • which new weapons were developed during the war
  • what happened during the battles of Verdun and the Somme
  • why 1917 was a decisive year for the war
  • why the USA joined the war
  • what the effects of the Russian Revolution were for the war
  • that World War I was a total war.
  • why the Germany (and its allies) eventually lost the war
Use these questions to make your own summary

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Introduction

For years, armies on the Western Front were locked in mortal combat. Millions of soldiers fought under terrible conditions in the trenches. During the war, new weapons were invented and used. Nevertheless, the balance of power was not much disrupted until the decisive year of 1917.



Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Lesson 9.1.3 Fighting the war

New Weapons are developed
  • In order to break the stalemate, both the Centrals and Allies develop new weapons, leading to:
  • senseless slaughters at the battles of Verdun and the Somme river.
1917: a decisive year: 
  • The United States joins the war
  • Russia surrenders after the Russian Revolution
1918: the end of the war
  • 11 / 11 / 1918, 11 a.m.: Armistice





Slide 12 - Tekstslide

German soldiers opening chlorine gas cannisters to poison the enemy

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

New weapons

Because of the combination of militarism and the industrial revolution, huge advances were made in the production of weapons; these were developed in an attempt to get through to enemy trenches. An example for this is the aeroplane. They were mainly used for scouting, but armed with machine guns and small bombs they could also inflict damage on enemy soldiers and supplies. Many air battles were fought, but the aeroplane did not play an important role in warfare until World War II.
Another modern weapon was the submarine, such as the U-Boat. This was not a new invention but the Germans were the first to use submarines on a large scale to challenge the superior British naval fleet. In determined attempt, they tried to stop every ship that sailed towards England.
The First World War is also infamous for the use of chemical weapons. Gasses such as chlorine, tear gas and mustard gas were put in bombs and shot into enemy trenches. The gasses burned eyes, nose and lungs and caused suffocation. Attacks using gas did not cause many deaths compared to other weapons, but the psychological effect of its use was great.



British soldiers and their horses wearing gas masks

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Thousands of soldiers were blinded by the gas

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

WWI ZEPPELINS: NOT TOO DEADLY, BUT SCARY AS HELL

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

WW1 saw the first aerial "dogfights"
The German Manfred von Richthoven , nicknamed the Red Baron, was the most successful fighter pilot during World War I. It is said he won more than 80 air battles before he was shot down .

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

German U-boats terrorized Allied ships 

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

The first tanks were seen in 1916

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Flamethrowers were used to flush enemy soldiers out of their trenches

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

most feared by soldiers 
bombing and dogfights
break through the enemy trenches
blokkade enemy supplies
bombing, reconnaissance, create panic
drive the enemy out of their trenches

Slide 21 - Sleepvraag

Despite having new and destructive weapons at their disposal, the strategies and mindset of the generals did not change much. They expected to fight in an oldfashioned way. For example, at the outbreak of the war, the French soldiers went to battle wearing traditional blue coats and red trousers, which made them highly visible and thus easy targets. Horses were used at the start of the war and generals ordered massive attacks on enemy trenches, even though the enemy used machine guns, resulting in the deaths of millions.




From left to right: British, French and German soldiers in 1914, at the start of WW1.

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

Every army adapted its uniforms during the war

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

Lesson 9.1.3 Fighting the war

New Weapons are developed
  • In order to break the stalemate, both the Centrals and Allies develop new weapons, leading to:
  • senseless slaughters at the battles of Verdun and the Somme river.
1917: a decisive year: 
  • The United States joins the war
  • Russia surrenders after the Russian Revolution
1918: the end of the war
  • 11 / 11 / 1918, 11 a.m.: Armistice





Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Battles at Verdun and the Somme

The best examples of the senseless slaughter took place at the Battle of Verdun and the Somme Offensive. In 1916, both Germany and the Allies prepared an attack to break through the stalemate. The Germans were first to launch a wave of attacks. On 21st February, they charged the French defences at Verdun, but the French resisted heavily. For ten months, the battle went on until the Germans called off the attack. It is estimated that about 350,000 soldiers died at the Battle of Verdun.




German soldiers attack Verdun. Notice the "Flammenwerfer" (flamethrower) being used by one of the soldiers.

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Which option best suits the Battle of Verdun?
A
many casualties, no breakthrough
B
many casualties, but stalemate is broken
C
few casualties, no breakthrough
D
few casualties, and stalemate is broken.

Slide 26 - Quizvraag

The massacres got worse when French and British troops raised their armies to full strength. At the River Somme, they assaulted the German trenches with blunt and overwhelming force. On the first day of the attack the British lost 57,450 men, which made it the darkest day in the history of the British army. The British deployed their new secret weapon during the battle of the Somme: the tank. This armoured vehicle ran on caterpillar tracks and was designed to cross trenches and break through barbed wire.
The appearance of the tank on the battlefield was spectacular, but could not bring an end to the war: tanks were only used in small numbers, had poor mobility and mechanical problems. After the Somme Offensive, the Allies had taken more than ten kilometres of land; this at the cost of more than a million soldiers’ lives makes it one of the bloodiest battles in human history.





One of the new british tanks ditched after failing to cross a German trench.

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

Which option best suits the Battle at the Somme?
A
many casualties, no breakthrough
B
many casualties, but stalemate is broken
C
few casualties, no breakthrough
D
few casualties, and stalemate is broken.

Slide 28 - Quizvraag

The tank was a new weapon that tipped the scale of the war in favour of the Allies.
A
TRUE
B
FALSE

Slide 29 - Quizvraag

Lesson 9.1.3 Fighting the war

New Weapons are developed
  • In order to break the stalemate, both the Centrals and Allies develop new weapons, leading to:
  • senseless slaughters at the battles of Verdun and the Somme river.
1917: a decisive year: 
  • The United States joins the war
  • Russia surrenders after the Russian Revolution
1918: the end of the war
  • 11 / 11 / 1918, 11 a.m.: Armistice





Slide 30 - Tekstslide

1917: a decisive year

In 1917, two significant events changed the course of the war. German U-Boats kept attacking unarmed passenger and merchant ships. In 1915, they torpedoed the British ocean liner ‘The Lusitania’. It sank immediately and 1,200 people lost their lives, among them 128 Americans. This led to massive anti-German sentiment in the United States. Two years later, a letter was intercepted, showing that the Germans tried to make an alliance with Mexico to attack the United States. On 6th April 1917, the United States Congress voted to join the Allies in the war.






President Woodrow Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany on April 2, 1917

British propaganda poster in response to the sinking of The Lusitania. Dated 1915.

Slide 31 - Tekstslide

The Zimmermann telegram: the direct cause for the USA to declare war on the Central Powers.
The encoded letter
The decoded letter
The letter published

Slide 32 - Tekstslide

Slide 33 - Video

CAUSES
DIRECT CAUSE
Why did the USA join WW1?
Zimmermann Telegram
US loans to the Allies
unrestricted submarine warfare
make the world safe for democracy

Slide 34 - Sleepvraag

Lesson 9.1.3 Fighting the war

New Weapons are developed
  • In order to break the stalemate, both the Centrals and Allies develop new weapons, leading to:
  • senseless slaughters at the battles of Verdun and the Somme river.
1917: a decisive year: 
  • The United States joins the war
  • Russia surrenders after the Russian Revolution
1918: the end of the war
  • 11 / 11 / 1918, 11 a.m.: Armistice





Slide 35 - Tekstslide

Russia is leaving the war

Causes:
  1. staggering number of casualties among poorly armed Russian soldiers.
  2. discontent in Russian cities: hunger, poverty, war.
  3. discontent about the Czar's rule and bad military leadership.

  • All this leads to the Russian Revolution in Feb 1917. (= February Revolution)
  • Result: the czar abdicates but the new (temporary civilian) government continues the war.





Slide 36 - Tekstslide



Direct cause:

  • Lenin, leader of the communists, seizes power in Russia during the October Revolution.

  • He signs an armistice (dec 1917) and negotiates a Peace Treaty with Germany. (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk)





Slide 37 - Tekstslide


Consequences / effects:

  1. Russia loses a lot of territory (and resources) to Germany.
  2. Russia's former allies (Britain and France) see Lenin as a traitor of the alliance.
  3. Germany can send its soldiers in Russia to the western front (no more two-front war!

  • It is spring 1918. Germany hopes to win the war before the Americans arrive.





Slide 38 - Tekstslide

Another major event happened in Russia during February 1917. Due to great poverty and inequality in this huge empire, a revolution took place. The German secret service made use of the unrest there: they sponsored the revolutionary Lenin to take control of the Russian government. When Lenin came to power in October, he signed a peace treaty with Germany: the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Germany and Russia were no longer enemies. (You will learn more about the Russian Revolution in the next chapter ). Now the Germans could send all their troops to the Western Front.







At the Peace Conference in Brest-Litovsk (arrival of the Russian delegation)

The price of peace was very high for Russia. It had to give up large parts of Russian territory to the Central Powers

Slide 39 - Tekstslide

When Lenin became the leader of Russia,
A
Russia switched sides and joined the Central Powers
B
Russia kept fighting but lost the war after the battle of Brest-Litovsk
C
Russia surrendered to Germany
D
Germany surrendered to Russia to end the two-front war

Slide 40 - Quizvraag

Lesson 9.1.3 Fighting the war

New Weapons are developed
  • In order to break the stalemate, both the Centrals and Allies develop new weapons, leading to:
  • senseless slaughters at the battles of Verdun and the Somme river.
1917: a decisive year: 
  • The United States joins the war
  • Russia surrenders after the Russian Revolution
1918: the end of the war
  • 11 / 11 / 1918, 11 a.m.: Armistice





Slide 41 - Tekstslide

The road to Armistice, 11/11/1918, 11 a.m.

1918
  1. April. The German offensive fails. Germany is exhausted.
  2. Aug.: 1 million American troops join the Allies in France.
  3. Oct.: unrest and local communist revolutions in Germany. Even the navy soldiers refuse to fight any longer.
  4. Nov 9: without army support Wilhelm II abdicates (and flees to the Netherlands). Germany becomes a Republic. With the kaiser gone, the Allies now agree to an armistice.
  5. Nov 11: armistice is signed in Compiègne. All armies stop fighting.





Slide 42 - Tekstslide

Slide 43 - Video

The end of a total war

World War I was the first total war, which means that everything in a country is focused on winning the war. Factories constantly worked to make weapons; food and fuel were rationed so it could be sent to the front, and a constant stream of propaganda was broadcast to keep the spirits up on the home front. Men had to fight, so women had to replace them in the factories. A country began to run as if it was a machine. But total war was not enough for the Central Powers: from the moment that the United States joined the conflict, the end of the war became a real prospect. More than a million fresh military personnel and innumerable supplies were shipped from the USA to the Allies in Europe, which provided a big moral boost. Germany and the other Central Powers could not compete with the Allies once the Americans joined them. Besides that, there was now discontent in Germany. In 1918, the Germans at last surrendered. At 11am on 11th November (‘the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month’), Germany signed an armistice in railway carriage No. 2419D, in Compiègne Forest, close to Paris. The Great War had come to an end. The Allies were victorious.








Soldiers celebrating the armistice, Nov 11, 1918.

Slide 44 - Tekstslide

signing an armistice means
A
both sides sign a peace treaty that officially ends the war.
B
both sides agree to pause the war for one month.
C
both sides agree to talk about ending the war soon.
D
both sides agree to stop the fighting, but officially the war has not ended yet

Slide 45 - Quizvraag

When Hitler defeated France at the start of World War II, he took the same railway carriage No. 2419D from a museum to the Compiègne Forest site and forced the French to surrender in it.

Signing of the armistice in the railway carriage at Compiegne, November 11, 1918, the German Secretary of State Matthias Erzberger (1875-1921) and the French general Ferdinand Foch (1851-1929) standing in the centre.

Slide 46 - Tekstslide

Finally, here you can write down a question about
something from this lesson that you don't fully understand yet.

Slide 47 - Open vraag

congratulations
congratulations

Slide 48 - Tekstslide