H4 & V4_Grammar Unit 2

Grammar Unit 2 
Irregular verbs

Past Simple & Used to / Would

Past Simple vs Present Perfect

Past  Simple vs Past Perfect

Past Simple vs Past Continuous

Asking questions & Making negative sentences


VWO4 : Phrasal verbs / Prefixes (ir-/un-/in- etc. -> put in front of a word) and Suffixes (-ment/-able/-ion etc. -> at end of a word)

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Grammar Unit 2 
Irregular verbs

Past Simple & Used to / Would

Past Simple vs Present Perfect

Past  Simple vs Past Perfect

Past Simple vs Past Continuous

Asking questions & Making negative sentences


VWO4 : Phrasal verbs / Prefixes (ir-/un-/in- etc. -> put in front of a word) and Suffixes (-ment/-able/-ion etc. -> at end of a word)

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

 Unit 2 - tenses (ww-tijden) - regular & irregular verbs
Irregular verbs - study list in your small booklet - p. 88-91 (know all forms and meaning E-N and N-E)
1st form.        2nd form.        3rd form
Go                     went                  gone

Past Simple = A) regular verbs -> verb + ed; B) irregular verbs = 2nd form 

Present Perfect = A) regular verbs -> has (he/she/it) or have (I/you/we/they) + verb +ed ; B) irregular verbs  = has/have + 3rd form

Past Perfect = A) regular verbs -> had (voor alles: I/you/he/she etc.) + verb +ed; B) irregular verbs -> had + 3rd form

Past Continuous = was (I/he/she/it) or were + verb + ing

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Past & present simple - present perfect & past perfect 
simple  vs continuous tenses

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Simple vs continuous tenses

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Present Perfect Signal words
  • just
  • yet
  • never
  • already
  • ever
  • so far
  • up to now
  • recently
  • since
  • for
  • all morning etc.  (this morning -> If it is still going on!)

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Past Simple signal words
  • when
  • ago
  • last week/year/time etc.
  • In 1945 etc.
  • yesterday
  • this morning (looking back/finished)

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Asking questions/making negative sentences

Asking questions:
Past Simple = Did + verb (=hele werkwoord) / 1st form. -> Did he go there?
Present Perfect = Have/has + 3rd form (regular verbs = verb  + ed) -> Has he done the dishes yet?
Past Perfect =  Had + 3rd form (regular verbs = verb + ed) -> Had he come over before she left?
Past Continuous = Was/were + verb + ing -> Were they doing their homework?

Negative sentences:
Past Simple = Didn't + verb (=hele werkwoord) / 1st form. -> He didn't go there.
Present Perfect = Haven't/hasn't  + 3rd form (regular verbs = verb + ed) -> He hasn't done the dishes yet.
Past Perfect = Hadn't + 3rd form (regular verbs = verb + ed) -> He hadn't come over before she left.
Past Continuous = Was/were + verb + ing -> They weren't doing their homework.

hasn't/haven't/hadn't/wasn't/weren't -> ook has not etc.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Used to/didn't use to - Would
To talk about the past:

used to /didn't use to = situatie en handeling in het verleden 
I used to live at my grandparents' when I was young(=situatie)
I used to skate during winters when I was young (= handeling)

would = handeling in het verleden (alleen gebruiken voor handeling in het verleden!)
I would skate during winters when I was young

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Phrasal verbs (V4 test)
phrasal verbs = verb + preposition (voorzetsel)
Het werkwoord heeft in combinatie met een voorzetsel (op/in/uit/naar etc.) een betekenis. Het werkwoord heeft met elk voorzetsel een andere betekenis. Bijvoorbeeld:

To fill in
To fill out
To fill up

To break down
To break up
To break even

To get out
to get up
to get even 

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Irregular verbs

For every test/every period,
you need to know the irregular verbs (1st/2nd/3rd forms) 
by heart!

Study the list in your small booklet,
practice on the website www.ego4u.com/grammar/irregular verbs
(link on next slide)

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Slide 12 - Link

Past Simple (I walked/I swam etc.)
  • regular verbs + ed (I walked)
  • irregular verbs = 2nd form (I caught)
  • questions = did + verb (1st form) ( Did you catch...?)
  • negative = didn't + verb (1st form) (I didn't catch...)
- A finished action in the past. You know when it happened. 
We met in 1987.         

- Actions which follow each other in a story 
Mary walked into the room and stopped. She listened carefully.  

- A past situation or habit 
As a child,I used to walk miles on the beach with my dog every day. 

 Past Continuous (I was walking/They were swimming etc.)
  • was (I/he/she/it) / were (you/we/they) + verb + ing
e.g. I was sleeping all morning yesterday.
- To express a (longer) activity in progress before (& after) a  particular time in the past. (verb = longer action)
At 7.00 this morning, I was having breakfast. 

 - To indicate something took long, or at least it felt that way 
The dentist was drilling for 3 minutes! 

- To express a longer action that was already going on (P.Cont.) and was interrupted by the shorter action (Past Simple)
When the phone rang, I was having a bath. 

- Scene descriptions in a story 
It was a beautiful day. The sun was shining and the birds were singing. 



















was talking. 



wasn’t talking. 

































 were talking. 



 weren’t talking. 














Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Past Simple (I walked/I swam etc.)

When you have a series of actions in the past, use the past simple:

I went to the store, bought milk, eggs and flour, drove home and made pancakes.

 Past Continuous (I was walking/They were swimming etc.)
vs Past Simple:

  You can have the following:

Two longer actions going on at the same time:
I was playing the violin while he was listening.

A longer action that was already going on, interrupted by a shorter action:
I was walking home when he rang.

NOTE: verbs like picked up, opened, closed = short actions = past simple

NOTE: like, love, hate, to be etc. = not in past continuous 

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

Slide 15 - Link

Past Simple (I went/I walked etc.)
  • A finished action in the past & you know when it happened (when = mentioned) 
-> He worked as a pilot in 2002.

  • Actions which follow each other in  a story (series of actions in the past)
-> She went to the store, and bought milk and cookies.

  • A past action or habit
-> As a child I used to dream a lot.

  • regular verbs: hele ww  + ed
  • irregular verb: - 2nd form/list
  • negative/questions: did/didn't + hele ww

Present Perfect (I have gone/she has walked etc.)
  • An unfinished action that started in the past and is still going on)
signal words: for, since
-> He has been really scared since the robbery.

  • The action is over, but he effects are still felt. Result is important, not "when"sth. happened and this isn't mentioned in the sentence.
signal words: ever, never, before, often, how many times

  • The RECENT past ACTION has a present RESULT (when = NOT important/NOT mentioned)
signal words: yet, already, just

  • regular verbs: has (he/she/it) /have + hele ww + ed
  • irregular verbs: has (he/she/it) / have + 3rd form/list (past participle)
  • negative/questions: has(n't)/have(n't) + 3rd form (past participle)

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Slide 17 - Link

Past Perfect
Had + 3rd form (irregular verbs) /verb + ed (regular verbs)

Earlier action in the past:
I had cleaned the table before he came in.
Before he came in, I had cleaned the table

After I had cleaned the table, he came in.
He came in after I had cleaned the table.

  • Earlier action/First action in the past = past perfect
  • Later action/Second action in the past = past simple

               past perfect                       past simple                                                          

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Slide 19 - Link

Slide 20 - Link

Adjectives vs Adverbs - SB p. 65-66
  • The red car. -> adjective modifies/says something about a noun (een bijvoegelijk nmw. zegt iets van een zelfsandig. nmw. - woord waarvoor je de/het/een kan zetten)

  • The completely red car -> adverb modifies an adjective ("red" in this case) (een bijwoord zegt iets van een bijvoegelijk nmw.)

  • Fortunately, she drives the completely red car really well. -> adverbs modify an entire sentence; an adjective or another adverb ("really" modifies "well") (bijwoorden zeggen iets van 1) de hele zin, 2) een bijvoegelijk nmw., 3) andere bijwoorden en 4) van werkwoorden - bijv. to drive well)


Slide 21 - Tekstslide

 Adverbs - SB p. 65-66
Adverb = adjective + -LY or irregular form (study these!)

Changes in ending:
adjective ending in -y ->- ily (easily; noisily; funnily)
adjective ending in -cal -> -ically (practically; fantastically)
adjectives ending in -LE -> LY (simply, subtly)

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

Slide 23 - Link

Adjectives with number
  • The fifty-pound note
  • I have a note of fifty pounds.

  • The 80-year-old grandmother.
  • The grandmother who is 80 years old

  • The 13-year-old girl
  • The girl who is thirteen years old

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Comparisons - SB p. 68-69
  • Adjective 1-syllable word - er/est (big - bigger than - the biggest)

  • Adjective (> or =) 3-syllable words - more/most (beautiful - more beautiful than - the most beautiful)

  • Adjective 2-syllable words - er/est or more/most (SB p. 68)

  • Adverbs (ending in -LY) - more/most (She danced more beautifully than he did.)

  • Adverbs that have the same form as adjectives (for example: fast, late) - er/est

  • STUDY Irregular adjectives & adverbs  (good/better/best; bad/worse/worst; few/fewer/fewest; little/less/least etc.)

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

Slide 26 - Link

NOTE: Adjective (NO ADVERB)  for verbs of perception
 (Gebruik een bijvoegelijk naamwoord wanneer het werkwoord een zintuig betreft)
  • look, 
  • taste, 
  • smell, 
  • feel 
  • sound 

->express sensation or appearance, they are followed by adjectives, not adverbs (because the adjective says something about the noun and NOT about the verb in these cases):

  • It smells good. NOT: It smells well.
  • The food looks bad. NOT: The food looks badly.
  • Your idea sounds good. NOT: Your idea sounds well.
  • This fabric is nice and soft, it feels good. NOT: This fabric is nice and soft, it feels well.

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

Irregular comparisons - study SB
little/less/least (non-countable = niet-telbaar) -> little milk/gold/love/hate = material/abstract words
few/fewer/fewest (countable = telbaar)  -> chair/spoon/people = words that have plurals (=meervoudsvorm), can be counted

much/more/most (non-countable) -> much milk/gold/love/hate
many/more/most (countable) -> many chairs/spoons/people = words that have plurals, can be counted

late/later/last (de laatste qua binnenkomst)
late/later/latest (de nieuwste)
the late Mr. Steve Jobs = wijlen

old/elder/eldest (familierelaties)

far/further -> aanvullende (further details; further inquiry)

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Irregular comparisons - study SB

little - smaller - smallest (baby/child - leeftijd/grootte)

Slide 29 - Tekstslide

fewer/less cars than....
fewer/less money than ....

much/many cars
much/many money

the more, the ....
is he as good as .....
is he just as good as
more and more

Slide 30 - Tekstslide

Slide 31 - Link