Lesson 2 Reading + Modal Auxiliaries

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Reading & Modal Auxiliaries
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In deze les zitten 16 slides, met tekstslides en 1 video.

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Welcome
Reading & Modal Auxiliaries

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

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Today

  • Review previous text
  • Reading next text (chocolate!)
  • Grammar (modal auxiliaries)

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

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Review

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

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Slide 4 - Video

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Reading: Chocolate!
Continue reading Text 2 & make the assignments.

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

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5 minute break!
Small break :) We'll continue with grammar next!

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

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Grammar: Modals

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

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How/What/When?
Placement: either at the beginning of a question sentence, or after the subject.

When: to show respect, to ask for permission, to express obligations

Example: May I ride on that motorcycle, please?

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

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Modal Auxiliaries
The modals are: can, must, may, might, will, would, should, could.
  • type of auxiliary (helping) verb
  • used to express: ability, possibility, permission or obligation

Modal verbs do not change their form (spelling) and they have no infinitive or participle (past/present).
You do not use “to” after a modal verb (EXCEPTION: ought to)

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

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Never change their form irrespective of the subject of the sentence
Ex: he might be home late, 
not *he mights be home late

Do not change to show past tense
Ex: she had to leave 
not *she musted leave
(present tense was in this case: she must leave) 
carry the negative of the sentence by the addition of not/n't
Ex: I shouldn’t laugh 
 not *I don't should laugh

Followed by the base form of the verb without the addition of to
Ex: There may be a problem 
not *there may to be

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

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Uses & Differences
can           to express ability                 I can speak a little Russian.
can           to request permission          Can I open the window?
may          to express possibility           I may be home late.
may          to request permission           May I sit down, please?
must         to express obligation           I must go now.
must         to express strong belief       She must be over 90 years old.
should      to give advice                      You should stop smoking.
would       to request or offer               Would you like a cup of tea?
would       in if-sentences                     If I were you, I would say sorry.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Why you can't always switch can & would: can can ask for permission or speak of ability. Could either requests or offers, or is the past tense version of can (I could speak a little Russian)
Spot the Difference!
What is the difference between:
  • I will go now
  • I can go now
  • I may go now

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

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Could/Can
Can I go to the toilet? v.s. Could I go to the toilet?: one is more polite.

HOWEVER: you can't always replace it (and retain the same meaning).
I can speak Russian.
I could speak Russian.


Slide 13 - Tekstslide

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Could/Can
Can I go to the toilet? v.s. Could I go to the toilet?: one is more polite.

HOWEVER: you can't always replace it (and retain the same meaning).
I can speak Russian.
I could speak Russian.

This has to do with what you are asking for. If you ask for permission, you can replace it for more formality. In other forms (expressing ability) you can't.

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

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What about ought to?
Ought to is a semi-modal.
It behaves like a modal verb: 
- doesn't change form
- cannot be used with another modal verb
- expresses advice (like should)
Unlike a modal verb:
- it's followed by to

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

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Practice
Purpose 1 & 2
Then, practice with you modules (10 & 11)

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

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