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CH3 sec. 3.3 The Enlightenment

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH3 The age of wigs and revolutions
The French Revolution
sec. 3.3 The Enlightenment
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In deze les zitten 28 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 2 videos.

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Memo havo 2 TTO
CH3 The age of wigs and revolutions
The French Revolution
sec. 3.3 The Enlightenment

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Recap 3.2
What were the three estates in 18th century France?
A
Clergy, nobility, 3rd estate (soldiers)
B
Soldiers, nobility, 3rd estate (citizens/workers/farmers)
C
Clergy, nobility, 3rd estate (citizens/workers/farmers)

Slide 2 - Quizvraag

How do we call the government in France where the king has absolute power and where there are estates with their own privileges?
A
absolutism
B
Ancien Régime
C
estate-based society
D
unitary state

Slide 3 - Quizvraag

What doesn't match the Second Estate?
A
Pay taxes
B
Own courts of justice and judges
C
Don't have to pay taxes
D
Help the king govern

Slide 4 - Quizvraag

Which estates had mostly rights and very few duties?
A
The farmers, citizens and nobility
B
The clergy and nobility
C
The clergy, the farmers and citizens
D
The citizens, clergy and nobility

Slide 5 - Quizvraag

"We do pay taxes, but have no say in government. That is unfair! "
To which group does this statement belong?
A
Farmers
B
Wealthy citizens
C
Nobility
D
Clergy

Slide 6 - Quizvraag

How was it that the French treasury was almost empty?
A
War expenses
B
High debts and interest rates
C
Spending of the royal couple
D
All answers are correct

Slide 7 - Quizvraag

Slide 8 - Video

Learning objectives
Main question: Which new ideas developed during the Enlightenment?
  • You can explain that the Enlightenment was a new way of thinking.
  • You can name and explain three aspects of the Enlightenment.
  • You can explain what kind of criticism enlightened thinkers had on the estate-based society and the government in France.
  • You can explain the ideas of Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu about the influence of citizens on government.
  • You can explain how rulers responded to the enlightened ideas.
  • You can explain how enlightened ideas spread.
  • You know the terms and dates of this section.

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

The Enlightenment
(De Verlichting)

Period (1650-1800) in which religion and tradition give way to logical and rational reasoning. Enlightened citizens were critical about the Church, government and society and wanted to improve them.

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Confidence in science
  • The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century had led to new inventions and discoveries. 
  • Logical (rational) thinking and experimentation led to new knowledge.
  • People gained more confidence in the human mind ('ratio'). 
  • Would lead to more and more knowledge and logical explanations.
  • More knowledge would 'enlighten' mankind.

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Confidence in science
  • The Enlightenment led to new ideas about God.
  • Enlightened thinkers believed that God had created the earth and man, but that he no longer interfered with his creation.
  • The world worked according to natural laws (for example Newton's law of universal gravitation).
  • There were logical explanations for disasters (wasn't God's punishment).
  • By using logical thinking instead of accepting everything the Church or government said, people could overcome superstition (be 'enlightened').

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

A new society
  • The Enlightenment caused people to think differently about society. Society could be improved by using the mind ('social engineering'). 
  • Education important to improve society.
  • Important aspects:
  1. Religious
  2. Social
  3. Political
  4. Economic (not required)

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Slide 14 - Video

A new society
Religious
  • Church criticism (persecutions and ban on other religions). Religious truth couldn't be proven by means of scientific evidence. 
  • Religious tolerance = No punishments for believing something different. Acceptance with regard to other religions.
  • Separation of Church and state = The Church shouldn't interfere with government and the state couldn't interfere in religious matters. 

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

A new society
Social
  • Criticism of inequality of the (estate-based) society. All were born with natural rights. Rights everybody has from birth. Nobody is allowed to violate the rights of others, such as the right to freedom, health and property.
  • Freedom, for example the freedom of speech, press freedom, freedom of religion or freedom of trade.
  • Equality, for example equality before law, gender equality, equality for slave and non-slave or even abolition of slavery. 

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

A new society
Political
Criticism of absolutism. Led to abuse of power and was based on religion.

John Locke
  • King was given power by the people.
  • Duty of the king: protect the rights of the people.
  • If the king didn't perform well, the people were
      allowed to rebel.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

A new society
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • People shouldn't give power to the king.
  • Power should always lie with people (democracy).
  • Against absolutism.

Charles de Montesquieu
Separation of powers ('Trias Politica'): 
Power had to be divided into three parts (legislative, executive and
judiciary).

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

A new society
Legislative power
  • Parliament (representative assembly)
  • Make rules and laws

Executive power
  • King and ministers (government)
  • Carry out rules and laws

Judicial power 
  • Judges
  • Issue punishments when people don't comply with rules and laws.

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

The rulers' responses
Absolute monarchs and churches weren't happy with enlightend ideas.
  • Banned books that criticised the government or the Church. 
       Censorship = government's ban on the disclosure of, for example, texts, 
       plays and pieces of music.
  • Enlightened thinkers were banished or imprisoned.

Yet kings and the Church couldn't stop the spread of enlightened ideas.

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

The rulers' responses
  • Enlightened ideas were popular among the bourgeoisie.
  • Met in coffee houses and salons to read and discuss.
  • Ideas spread through magazines and newspapers.
  • This is how a public opinion emerged.

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

Which sentence or sentences are correct?
1 Enlightened thinkers felt that people should decide themselves what to believe.
2 They were against religious tolerance.
3 They believed there was a logical explanation for everything.
4 Before the Enlightenment, almost everyone believed that God no longer intervened in life.
A
Sentences 1 and 3
B
Sentence 4
C
Sentences 1, 3 and 4
D
Sentences 2 and 3

Slide 22 - Quizvraag

Which enlightened thinker developed the 'Trias Politica'?
A
John Locke
B
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
C
Charles de Montesquieu
D
Baruch Spinoza

Slide 23 - Quizvraag

Why is Trias Politica important?
A
It prevents abuse of power.
B
More people are involved in government.
C
The king receives help in the administration.
D
It leads to more equality.

Slide 24 - Quizvraag

Which sentences match enlightened thinkers?
1. If a ruler doesn't perform well, the ruler can be replaced by the people.
2. The power of the government should be divided among the government, parliament and judges.
3. A king doesn't have to answer for his actions to anyone.
4. The Church should have a say in government.
A
1 and 2
B
1 and 3
C
2 and 3
D
2 and 4

Slide 25 - Quizvraag

Which sentences match the Ancien Régime?
1. Every state should have a constitution which sets out the citizens right's and duties and government's organisation .
2. Rulers received their power from God.
3. Kings and ministers were given their power by the people.
4. The king is the law.
A
1 and 2
B
1 and 3
C
2 and 3
D
2 and 4

Slide 26 - Quizvraag

Learning objectives
Main question: Which new ideas developed during the Enlightenment?
  • You can explain that the Enlightenment was a new way of thinking.
  • You can name and explain three aspect of the Enlightenment.
  • You can explain what kind of criticism enlightened thinkers had on the estate-based society and the government in France.
  • You can explain the ideas of Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu about the influence of citizens on government.
  • You can explain how rulers responded to the enlightened ideas.
  • You can explain how enlightened ideas spread.
  • You know the terms and dates of this section.

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

Get to work
What? See whiteboard.
How? Alone 
Help? Ask neighbour. Can't figure it out? Ask teacher. 
Time? Until the end of the lesson. 
Done? Learn terms and dates. Ask teacher. 

Slide 28 - Tekstslide