4.2: Expansion of the Roman Republic

The Time of Greeks and Romans
4.2: Expansion of the Roman Republic
This lesson replaces lesson 4.2 in yout textbook!!
1 / 41
Slide 1: Tekstslide
HistoryMiddelbare schoolvwoLeerjaar 1

In deze les zitten 41 slides, met interactieve quizzen, tekstslides en 1 video.

time-iconLesduur is: 45 min

Onderdelen in deze les

The Time of Greeks and Romans
4.2: Expansion of the Roman Republic
This lesson replaces lesson 4.2 in yout textbook!!

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

What you will learn in 
this lesson
  • What were the Punic Wars?
  • Who was Hannibal?
  • How did Hannibal almost destroy Rome? 
  • How was Hannibal defeated?
  • What were the consequences of the Punic Wars?
  • Why and how did the Roman army change?

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Word Duty

expansion: getting bigger, larger
Punic Wars: three wars that were fought between Rome and Carthage
empire: when a country conquers other lands the country and its new territories are called an empire.
superpower: a very strong and powerful country
booty; valuable stolen goods, especially those seized in war.
legion: a Roman military unit that was made up of 5,000 soldiers who were called legionaries.


Slide 4 - Tekstslide

people in this lesson
consul / general
consul / general

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Important dates in this lesson:

264 - 241 BC:   First Punic War

219 - 202 BC:   Second Punic War

149 - 146 BC:   Third Punic War

100 BC: Marius reforms the Roman army 

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Before you start with the lesson....
I have added sound files to the texts in these
last couple of lessons.

But do you actually need and use them?
I don't need them and I don't use them
I don't need them but I use them anyway
I use them because they help me understand the texts better.
I need them but I just don't use them.

Slide 7 - Quizvraag

Once the Romans had taken over the whole of Italy, they did not stop their expansion. This map shows you how the Roman empire grew bigger and bigger until it surrounded the Mediterranean Sea. How did the Romans become so powerful?

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Expansion during the Republic

Rome was a republic from 509 - 27 BC, so roughly five centuries. During this period Rome grew from an Italian city state to an empire.

The Roman republic kept conquering land and by 265 BC, it controlled Southern Italy, which was made up of Greek city-states. With this power Roman trade also grew. To trade, the Romans needed access to the seaports, but that would not be easy. Another powerful empire was in their way: Carthage. The city Carthage was in modern day Tunisia. The Carthaginians ruled lands in Northern Africa, Spain and Sicily. They had a far stronger navy than the Romans and were willing to fight over Southern Italy and trade.

Reconstruction image of ancient Carthage and its harbour as it appeared before Roman conquest - situated in modern day Tunisia

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

1. Look at the map. Which three islands off the coast of Italy were conquered by Carthage?

Slide 10 - Open vraag

2. Use internet to find the answer to this question:
Where does the name "Punic" Wars come from?

Slide 11 - Open vraag

3a. In which modern country was Carthage located?

Slide 12 - Quizvraag

The Punic Wars

The first war with Carthage, or the first Punic War (264-241 BC), was fought over Sicily. Rome defeated Carthage after 23 years. Carthage was able to recover. They started the second Punic war in 218 BC.

The brilliant Carthaginian general Hannibal surprised the Romans by leading an army (including 60 war elephants!) across the Alps into Italy.
Hannibal won battles at lake Trasimeno (217 BC) and Cannae (216 BC). This terrified the Romans because they expected him to attack Rome next.

Modern reconstruction drawing of the Carthaginian army crossing the Alps with elephants

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Modern reconstruction drawing of the Carthaginian army crossing the Alps with elephants

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

4a. The First Punic War was fought over the island

Slide 15 - Quizvraag

4b. The First Punic War was mainly a dispute over:

Slide 16 - Quizvraag

5. Why were the Romans surprised when Hannibal's army arrived in Italy?

Slide 17 - Open vraag

6. Why couldn't the Romans catch Hannibal in Italy?

Slide 18 - Open vraag

7. For how long was Hannibal able to attack Roman cities in Italy?
15 months
6 years
150 days
15 years

Slide 19 - Quizvraag

Hannibal defeated

Because of his losses as he crossed the Alps, Hannibal's army was not strong enough to attack the city of Rome. 
So Hannibal attacked other cities and towns throughout Italy. Hannibal and his army spent 15 years in Italy fighting against the Roman legions.

Rome was worried and afraid. They had to keep a large army near Rome to protect against Hannibal so they could never get enough troops out to catch him. Rome came up with a new plan.
The Roman general Scipio took the Roman army and attacked Carthage itself.
The leaders of Carthage panicked and called Hannibal and his army home. When Hannibal got back, Scipio was prepared. During a bloody battle Hannibal's army was defeated (see video clip). The Romans did not manage to catch Hannibal himself, but they forced Carthage to shrink its army and navy, and pay tribute (money) to Rome.

Reconstruction image of ancient Carthage and its harbour as it appeared before Roman conquest - situated in modern day Tunisia

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

8a. How were the Romans able to get Hannibal to leave Italy?

Slide 21 - Open vraag

8b. Drag 4 of the 5 places to their correct location in the map
Lake Trasimeno

Slide 22 - Sleepvraag

Rome's secret weapon

The First Punic War was fought largely over the island of Sicily. This meant a lot of the fighting was at sea where Carthage had the advantage of a much stronger navy than Rome. However, Rome quickly built up a large navy of over 100 ships. Rome also invented the corvus, a type of assault bridge that allowed Rome's superior soldiers to board enemy navy vessels. Rome soon dominated Carthage and won the war.

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

The end of Carthage

Rome allowed Carthage to rebuild over time. Some senators did not like that very much. They were afraid that Carthage would one day start another war if it was allowed to become strong again.
A senator called Cato ended every speech he gave in the senate with the words: ‘and I also think we should destroy Carthage.’ Finally he got his way. The senate was so afraid that Cartage might rise again that they made sure it never would. They attacked Carthage and during this Third Punic War (149-146 BC) the Romans completely destroyed Carthage and put salt on their fields, so nothing could ever grow there again. Carthage would never recover.

Modern drawing that gives an impression of the final battle of Carthage.
Roman triremes sail towards the harbour of the city of Carthage
Modern drawing that gives an impression of the final battle of Carthage.
Roman soldiers use the "turtle" formation, using their shields to make a roof that protects them from arrows and projectiles.

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

9. What was the cause of the 3rd Punic War?

Slide 25 - Open vraag

10. Look up the meaning of the term "preventive war"
Do you think the 3rd Punic War was a preventive war? Explain your answer.

Slide 26 - Open vraag

Consequences of the Punic Wars

After the Punic wars the Romans became a superpower in the region. They quickly tried to take over from the defeated Carthaginians. They took control of the Southern parts of Italy, where many Greek colonies were located. They also took Carthaginian possessions in Spain.
With all this expansion, new wealth came to Rome. Beautiful statues were brought to Rome as war booty. Proud generals displayed them in their homes, which made other Romans jealous. They wanted more wealth too and soon Rome started wars to conquer more rich lands, like Greece.
After the conquest of Greece, all things Greek became popular in Rome. The patricians even started to speak Greek in public instead of Latin. Many prisoners of war were brought to Rome: some worked as slaves in homes of the rich, perhaps teaching their children Greek. Others might have built a new theatre for the city. The Romans thought most things from Greek culture were fantastic. They adopted and copied Greek myths and Greek architecture. They even adopted the Greek gods, although they gave them Roman names.

map: the Roman empire, including Greece, in 146 BC
bottom picture: Roman soldiers have captured the Greek city of Athens

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

12. Which three modern countries had (partly) become a part of the Roman Republic after the Punic Wars?

Slide 28 - Open vraag

13. Rome could become a big empire after the 3rd Punic War because it had no more strong competitors.

Do you agree with this statement?
I agree completely
I agree partially
I disagree mostly
I disagree completely

Slide 29 - Quizvraag

14a. The Romans adopted the Greek gods but gave them Roman names.
What were the Roman names of Zeus, Poseidon, Aphrodite, Hades and Ares

Slide 30 - Open vraag

14b. What do you notice when you see the names of the Roman gods?

Slide 31 - Open vraag

a Professional army

The early Roman army was organised similarly to the armies of the Greek poleis. Only Roman citizens who could pay for their own armour and equipment could join the army. It was not a professional army. 
As the empire got bigger Rome needed more soldiers. The consul Gaius Marius, who was also a succesful army general, changed the organisation of the Roman army around 100 BC. From then on:
  • poor citizens could also join the army.
  • Rome paid the armour and equipment
  • soldiers signed up for a fixed period of time (16 to 20 years)
  • soldiers were paid wages for their service
  • the army was organised into legions, each made up of around 5,000 soldiers.
Rome now had a full-time professional army.
The Roman army became one of the most successful armies in world history. It was well-trained, well-equipped, and well-organized. You can learn more about the Roman army in a different lesson.

top picture: Roman legionaries during the Republican era.
bottom: overview of one Roman legion

Slide 32 - Tekstslide

Marius' mules

Gaius Marius also introduced other reforms. To ensure his soldiers were fit he ordered them to go on long route-marches. While doing this they had to carry their own cooking utensils, three days' food rations, a sickle, rope, pick-axe, turf-cutter, shield, sword and javelin. Not surprisingly, Roman legionnaires obtained the nick-name "Marius' mules".

Slide 33 - Tekstslide

15a. Which of these statements is correct?

I. After the reforms of Marius, slaves could become soldiers.
II. After the reforms of Marius, being a soldier was a fulltime profession.
Both are correct
Both are wrong
Only I is correct
Only II is correct

Slide 34 - Quizvraag

15b. After Marius' reforms Roman legionaries were nicknamed "Marius' mules", because:
they were just as stupid as donkeys to carry out these new rules.
they had to carry all of their equipment like a beast of burden
Marius owned donkeys that he treated like soldiers
the legionaries adopted the sound of a donkey as their battle cry

Slide 35 - Quizvraag

Slide 36 - Tekstslide

16. Would you say that the empire expanded more and more quickly after the reforms of Marius? Use information from the map to explain your answer.

Slide 37 - Open vraag

Make a picture / scan of the summary of lesson 4.2
and upload it here.

Slide 38 - Open vraag

Write down one question about something from this lesson that you find difficult.

Slide 39 - Open vraag

If you want to learn more about Hannibal's war against Rome you can watch this 90 minute film. Not mandatory, but interesting nonetheless....

Slide 40 - Tekstslide

Slide 41 - Video