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Gerunds and infinitives

Gerund and infinitives
There are times where we can use a verb as a noun. When this happens, we call this particular verb a gerund. Sometimes, instead of the gerund, we have to use to + infinitive

A gerund/to + infinitive can take the place of the subject (onderwerp), direct object (lijd voorwerp) or indirect object (meewerk. voorwerp) in a sentence.

Subject: Listening to music is what I love to do.
Object (direct or indirect) : I was thinking about meeting them. / Jonathan considered telling him everything.

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Slide 1: Tekstslide
EngelsMiddelbare schoolhavoLeerjaar 4

In deze les zitten 21 slides, met interactieve quizzen en tekstslides.

time-iconLesduur is: 30 min

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Gerund and infinitives
There are times where we can use a verb as a noun. When this happens, we call this particular verb a gerund. Sometimes, instead of the gerund, we have to use to + infinitive

A gerund/to + infinitive can take the place of the subject (onderwerp), direct object (lijd voorwerp) or indirect object (meewerk. voorwerp) in a sentence.

Subject: Listening to music is what I love to do.
Object (direct or indirect) : I was thinking about meeting them. / Jonathan considered telling him everything.

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Gerunds (verb + -ing)
You use a gerund (-ing form)
  • after a preposition
  • after a phrasal verb
  • after verbs that indicate likes/dislikes: like, dislike, love, hate, fancy, envy,
  • after verbs that indicate using the senses: see, watch, hear, smell, feel
  • after certain expressions: it's no use, it's not worth, there's no point
  • after certain other verbs like: start-stop, avoid, miss, suggest, consider, imagine

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

The to-infinitive
You use the to-infinitive only as an object, never as a subject in the sentence:
  • after certain verbs that express wishes or orders : afford, agree, ask, choose, help, hope, want, intend, pretend, promise, expect, prefer, used
  • after certain adjectives: difficult, possible, happy, certain, simple
  • after verbs : verb + somebody + to do + something: ask, encourage, permit, allow, persuade, teach, force
  • after specifically these verbs: decide, expect, choose, hesitate, learn, refuse, manage

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

The bare infinitive (without to)
You use the bare infinitive:
  • after auxiliary verbs (hulpwerkwoorden)
  • after let, had better, would rather
  • after make  (active!) (in passive: to infinitive)

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Now in Dutch:
Een werkwoord (verb) kan soms worden gebruikt als zelfstandig naamwoord (noun). Wanneer een werkwoord deze rol aanneemt spreek je van een gerund (werkwoord + ing).
Het lijkt veel op de continuous tense, maar is dus een andere tijd. Soms moet of kun je in plaats van de gerund ook to + hele werkwoord gebruiken.

Je kunt de gerund gebruiken als onderwerp van de zin, als lijdend voorwerp of als meewerkend voorwerp.
Onderwerp: Listening to music is what I love to do.
Lijdend/Meewerkend voorwerp: I was thinking about meeting them.
Lijdend/Meewerkend voorwerp: Jonathan is considering telling him everything.

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Wanneer gebruik je de gerund?
  • Na werkwoorden waarmee je aangeeft wat je wel of niet leuk vindt (like, dislike, love, hate, fancy, envy):
    - I like running on the street!
  • Na zintuigelijke werkwoorden (see, watch, hear, smell, feel)
    - I watched him kayaking trough that river.
  • Na de specifieke werkwoorden avoid, consider, give up, go on, keep, manage, mind, prefer, recommend, start, stop en suggest
    - I recommend drinking a large glass of water.
  • Na uitdrukkingen:
    - She can't stand dancing with him.
  • Na voorzetsels:
    - He eats his breakfast before heading out to work.









Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Wanneer gebruik je de to + infinitive?
Na werkwoorden die een wens uitdrukken (wish, hope, want, dream, desire):
- I hope to see you next Friday.


Na werkwoorden die een bevel uitdrukken (demand, forbid, prohibit, allow, restrict):
- I demand to have dinner right now.


Na de specifieke werkwoorden decide, expect, choose, hesitate, learn, refuse, manage:
- She didn't hesitate to dive into the water.
- We managed to get into the building through the back door.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

TOT SLOT

De gerund suggereert dat het al gebeurd is (al gaande is):

- I remember doing groceries (is al gebeurd)


De to + hele werkwoord suggereert dat het nog niet gebeurd is (in de toekomst pas echt gaat gebeuren):

- I remember to do groceries (moet je nog gaan doen)

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Jenny suggested … to the party in a taxi
A
go
B
to go
C
going

Slide 9 - Quizvraag

I look forward to … from you in the near future
A
hear
B
to hear
C
hearing

Slide 10 - Quizvraag

I don't mind .. it
A
do
B
to do
C
doing

Slide 11 - Quizvraag

The children were made .. out of bed
A
get
B
to get
C
getting

Slide 12 - Quizvraag

I'm going to town … a new jumper
A
buy
B
to buy
C
buying

Slide 13 - Quizvraag

Let me … tea
A
make
B
to make
C
making

Slide 14 - Quizvraag

I can't afford … you any more money
A
lend
B
to lend
C
lending

Slide 15 - Quizvraag

Extra exercise: gerund or infinitive
01. Drew pretends … (know) all the answers. 
02. Ferdinand is quite capable of … ( solve) this puzzle. 
03. He cannot afford … (buy) a new coat. 
04. He prefers … ( go) on holiday to Spain, 
05. Henry gave up … (try) to convince Emma that he was right . 
06. His parents are very proud of … (raise) him well. 
07. I am looking forward to … (receive) your reply. 
08. I begged my dad … (give) me more pocket money, but he refused. 
09. I detest … (have) to do the dishes every night. 
10. I must insist on … (finish) the work first.  

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

11. It’s not worth … (argue) about this matter.  It is not important at all. 
12. Jane was difficult …(please). 
13. Jennifer chose … (stop) smoking when she saw a picture of a tarred lung. 
14. John is great at … (solve) maths problems. 
15. Kaylee left home … (study) Law. 
16. Miss Jones encourages her pupils … (think) for themselves and form their own opinions. 
17. Mr Smith is worried about … (be) late for work. 
18. My friend loves … ( play) a musical instrument. 
19. My mother gave up … (play) pro tennis when she got me. 
20. Nathalie is keen on ...( pursue) a career in fashion.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

21. Never apologise for … (speak) your mind. 
22. She burst out … (laugh) when she heard the news. 
23. She doesn’t believe in … (tell) white lies. 
24. We were happy …(stay) at home and watch Netflix all night. 
25. Your teachers expect you … (work) very hard  

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Answers
01. Drew pretends to know all the answers.   
02. Ferdinand is quite capable of solving this puzzle.  
03. He cannot afford to buy a new coat.   
04. He prefers  to go on holiday to Spain,   
05. Henry gave up trying to convince Emma that he was right .  
06. His parents are very proud of raising him well.   
07. I am looking forward toreceiving your reply.   
08. I begged my dad to give me more pocket money, but he refused.   
09. I detest having to do the dishes every night.  
10. I must insist on finishing the work first.  

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Answers
11. It’s not worth arguing about this matter.  It is not important at all.   
12. Jane was difficult to please.   
13. Jennifer choose to stop smoking when she saw a picture of a tarred lung.   
14. John is great at solving maths problems.   
15. Kaylee left home to study  Law.   
16. Miss Jones encourages her pupils to think for themselves and form their own opinions.   
17. Mr Smith am worried about  being  late for work.   
18. My friend loves playing a musical instrument.   
19. My mother gave up playing pro tennis when she got me.  
20. Nathalie iseen on pursuing a career in fashion.  

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

Answers
21. Never apologise for speaking your mind.
22. She burst out laughing when he heard the news
23. She doesn’t believe in telling white lies.   
24. We were happy to stay at home and watch Netflix all night.   
25. Your teachers expect you to work very hard  

Slide 21 - Tekstslide