Romanticism  - 1789-1848
“If poetry comes not as naturally as the leaves to a tree, it had better not come at all.” (Keats)

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Romanticism  - 1789-1848
“If poetry comes not as naturally as the leaves to a tree, it had better not come at all.” (Keats)

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Neoclassical painting
= Age of Enlightenment (or: Age of Reason)

The Oath of the Horatii (1785)
Louvre, Paris.
By Jacques-Louis David.
Romantic painting

The Hay Wain

(John Constable, 1821)

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Slide 3 - Video

Romantic music
  • Famous early Romantic composers: Beethoven , Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Bellini, and Berlioz. 
  • Late 19th century: dramatic expansion in  size of orchestra and in  range/diversity instruments 
  • Late 19th century music is characterized by nationalistic fervor , (musicians Dvořák, Sibelius, Grieg,  Saint-Saëns, Fauré). 
       French revolution start of Romantic era -> revolution = political independence = music for              your own country

Camille Saint-Saëns
La danse macabre

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Neoclassical architecture

The White House (1792-1800)

Romantic architecture

Brighton, Royal Pavilion
(John Nash, 1815-1822)

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Neoclassical poetry (Enlightenment)
= didactic (teaches people)

Essay on man - Alexander Pope

Know then thyself, presume not God to scan;
The proper study of Mankind is Man.
Plac'd on this isthmus of a middle state, 
A being darkly wise, and rudely great:

Romantic poetry
= personal feeling (art for the sake of art, expression of emotions)

I wandered lonely as a cloud - William Wordsworth

For oft, when on my couch I lie  
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils.  

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

 Start of Literary period- Romanticism
1789: French  Revolution > Ideal of new world without tyranny, characterized by individual freedom.

Willam Godwin's Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (influenced Wordsworth, Shelly a.o.)

Plea for English Democratice Republic

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Romantic themes in art/literature
  • liberty  
  • nature  
  • the exotic  
  • the supernatural  
  • creative process / imagination 

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

Characteristics Romanticism
  1. individual, personal
  2. feeling / Imagination
  3. common life
  4. spontaneity
  5. ordinary language
  6. pleasure
  7. nature as background and inspiration

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

How does a Romantic poet write?
  • Poet’s own feelings important (personal, subjective, individual)  
  •  Poem is composed spontaneously cf. Wordsworth: poetry is “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings, taking its origin in emotion recollected in tranquility.”  
  • Keywords: inspiration, imagination, originality 

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Romanticism: Friendship instead of social status 
  • The most important form of loyalty was friendship (you choose friends based on same character)
  • Choice of friends/partners became important vs  Social status obtained through friends/partners

Freedom of choice was also freedom to reject a partner. Not everyone could handle rejection

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Neoclassical period (1715-1789)
= Age of Enlightenment (or: Age of Reason)

  1. Reason (thinking rationally)
  2. Objectivity / Analytic view
  3. Clarity
  4. Science (art is didactical, teaches)
  5. Replica (of classical themes)
  6. Materialistic
  7. Quantity
  8. Human being is separate from nature (nature = resources)
  9. Security & optimism (science = progress)
  10. Hero = universal, static (general description)

Romantic period (1789-1848)
(a philosophical response to reason/technology/science)

  1. Feeling (indivual feelings, individual differences)
  2. Subjectivity / Holistic view
  3. Ambiguity & irony (= means the opposite of what you say)
  4. Art to inspire (art for the sake of art)
  5. Creativity
  6. Spiritualistic
  7. Quality (human life)
  8. Human being is part of nature
  9. Insecurity & doubt (revolution, war)
10. Hero = complex, exceptional individual
(focus on internal struggle, mood / examination of mentality)
Hero thinks more about existence, death, eternity

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Which one is more important to you:
a friend to show off, who is part of your social status
a friend who has things in common with you, someone you like

Slide 13 - Quizvraag

In which period would you like to have lived: Enlightenment or Romantic?

Slide 14 - Open vraag

Classical poet's quote
Romantic poet's quote

Slide 15 - Quizvraag

How are Brexiteers influenced by the philosophy of Romanticism?

Slide 16 - Open vraag

What's the influence of Romanticism on 
today's culture ?

Is scientific advancement always good?

Can we always control what we create? 

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

William Blake (1757 – 1827) 
  • Poet, painter, illustrator during the Romantic period
  • Famous for his expressiveness and creativity, 
  • Philosophical and mystical undercurrents in his work
  •  Hostile to the Church of England  (to almost all forms of organised religion) but reverent of the Bible
  • Influenced by the ideals & ambitions of the French and American Revolutions
  • His poetry rebels against the abuse of class power 
  • Famous work:  Songs of Innocence and  of Experience (1794)
  • Imagination is the most important element of human existence
  • He experienced visions of beautiful religious themes and imagery
  •  Believed in racial and sexual equality. Several poems and paintings express universal humanity:                                                         "As all men are alike (tho' infinitely various)".

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

Assignment: Songs of Innocence and of Experience (W. Blake)
  • Read the poem (Songs of Innocence - The Chimney Sweeper)
  • Answer questions 1-8 in class
  • Homework: questions 9, 10 & 11

Slide 20 - Tekstslide