Argumentative Essays

Argumentative Essays
Part 1: The structure of a good argument
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Argumentative Essays
Part 1: The structure of a good argument

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Lesson goals
- I know the difference between an deductive and inductive argument.
- I know the different levels of counterarguments, from least convincing to most convincing.
-I can formulate a good argument.

So first, let's look at some examples. In the next video, whose arguments are more persuasive to you?

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Slide 3 - Video

Whose arguments were more persuasive?
A
Donald Trump's arguments
B
Joe Biden's arguments

Slide 4 - Quizvraag

What made the person, whose arguments (or structure of the arguments) you preferred, persuasive?

Slide 5 - Open vraag

Deductive vs. Inductive Arguments
The stronger of these are deductive arguments, as the conclusion of a deductive argument follows necessarily from the truth of its premises:
-> An argument is valid if the truth of all its premises forces the conclusion to be true.

1st Premise:   All human beings are mortal.
2nd Premise: Sam is a human being.
Conclusion:   Thus, Sam is mortal.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Deductive vs. Inductive Arguments
The premises of an inductive argument, by comparison, simply present the conclusion as probable, rather than logically necessary:

1st Premise: My dog is furry.
2nd Premise: My neighbor’s dog is furry.
3rd Premise: Every dog I’ve seen so far has been furry.
Conclusion: The next dog I see will be furry.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

Deductive vs. Inductive Arguments
Come up with a finite set of premises that illustrate the line of reasoning for the argument. These premises and conclusions constitute your main points, which should act as the main topic for each of your paragraphs.
Normally you would need to include evidence/sources, but for this essay you do no thave to, which means your reasoning has to be sound.

Slide 8 - Tekstslide

How to
disagree:

Slide 9 - Tekstslide

Practice
Now it is time to formulate your own arguments!
Write down: I agree/ disagree, because....
timer
1:00

Slide 10 - Tekstslide

Argumentative Essays
Part 2: The structure of a good argumentative essay

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Lesson goals
- I know what the structure of a good argumentative essay is.
.- I can describe what makes an essay strong/weak, good/bad.


Last week, we discussed how to formulate a strong argument and today we we will discuss what else can help you convince someone of your point (in writing).

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

Just to be clear: What is the purpose of an argumentative essay?
A
to compare and contrast two different or similar things.
B
to convince the reader by using logic and evidence
C
to answer a question through research of the relevant literature
D
to analyze a piece of literature from different angles

Slide 13 - Quizvraag

Argumentative Essay Structure
- Title
- Introduction
- Main argument 1
- Main argument 2
- Counterargument 1
- Conclusion

Slide 14 - Tekstslide

The Title
- Avoid boring titles (or having no title at all!):
          -> Repeating the statement or only stating the topic.
          -> "Guns are good." "Guns in the Netherlands." "Guns."
- Try to come up with an exciting / interesting/clever title 
          -> "The controlling nature of gun control laws."
          -> "Gun control laws are bulletproof."
  

Slide 15 - Tekstslide

The Introduction 
  • Hook =  a catchy sentence or paragraph in the introduction which serves as an attention-grabbing element.
  • Background information (if necessary)
  • Thesis statement including the three arguments to be expanded on. 

Slide 16 - Tekstslide

Introduction - Match
Kids with black eyes. Kids crying themselves to sleep. Kids afraid to go to school these are just some of the things that happen when kids are bullied. 
Millions of kids are bullied every month. They are bullied every month. They are bullied physically and emotionally, and made fun of and intimidated in person, online over phones, and almost everywhere. Not enough is being done. 
Bullying should be punished by a fine or jail time because it is too prevalent, it leaves long-lasting emotional and academic scars, and it can lead to suicide. In addition, fines and jail time will prevent further bullying. 
Hook
Background info
Thesis statement

Slide 17 - Sleepvraag

Suggestions on how to create a hook
  • Start with an interesting fact
  • Share an anecdote
  • Write about a common misconception about your essay topic
  • Start with a rhetorical question

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Why is (or isn't) this a good thesis statement:

Grades should be eliminated because they cause anxiety and put unnecessary pressure on students.

Slide 19 - Open vraag

The Body
  • Each paragraph is focused on one (counter)argument
  • Structure for each paragraph:   
 - Introduction by means of a topic sentence (one 
sentence that shows what the main argument
is that you're going to make) 
- Sub-arguments, evidence, examples 
- Conclusion

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

How to structure your body paragraphs using the PEEL method? 
Point: start your sentence with a clear topic sentence that establishes what your paragraph is about. 
Evidence/ Example: here you should use a piece of evidence that helps to reaffirm your iniitial point and develop the argument. 
Explain: next you need to explain exactly how your evidence supports your point. 
Link: you need to link the point you have just made back to your thesis or the following paragraph using a linking word

Slide 21 - Tekstslide

Conclusion
  • Thesis and arguments restated in a different, interesting manner. 
  • Call to some sort of action or response. 
  • Thought -provoking ending. 

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

Do not ...
...simply repeat your introduction or thesis.

...introduce any new or significant evidence or example for your main argument. 

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

Practice!
So now you know how to build an argument and use the structure of an argumentative essay to your advantage, but what else is important?
1. Rank the three essays with your classmates from worst to best.
2. Write down the strengths and weaknesses of each essay to support your ranking.
timer
1:00

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

Worst
Middle
Best
Essay 1
Essay 2
Essay 3

Slide 25 - Sleepvraag

What did you pay attention to while deciding how to rank the essays?

Slide 26 - Open vraag