CH3 sec. 3.1 The Enlightenment

Memo havo 2 TTO
CH3 The age of wigs and revolutions
The French Revolution
sec. 3.1 The Enlightenment
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Slide 1: Tekstslide
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Memo havo 2 TTO
CH3 The age of wigs and revolutions
The French Revolution
sec. 3.1 The Enlightenment

Slide 1 - Tekstslide

Learning objectives
  • You can describe the society of estates in the Ancien Régime
  • You can explain that there were major differences within the Third Estate
  • You can explain how privileges caused inequality in French society.
  • You can explain why different groups within the Third Estate were unhappy.
  • You can explain that the Enlightenment was a new way of thinking.
  • You can explain the ideas of Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu about the influence of citizens on government. 
  • You can explain how rulers responded to the enlightened ideas.
  • You can explain how enlightened ideas spread.
  • You know the terms and dates of this section.

Slide 2 - Tekstslide

Estate-based society
France was an  estate-based society (=standensamenleving).  
Your place in society (estate) was determined by birth. 
Society consisted of three estates:  
  • 1st estate: clergy  
  • 2nd estate: nobility   
  • 3rd estate: rest of society (around 98%)

Slide 3 - Tekstslide

Estate-based society
Every estate had its own task and place in society:
  • 1st estate: pray
  • 2nd estate: fight (help king govern).
  • 3rd estate: work (provide food and goods) 

Slide 4 - Tekstslide

Estate-based society
There were big differences within the 3rd estate.
To this estate belonged: (in order of importance!) 
  • Wealthy citizens in the cities. Merchants, lawyers, judges, bankers, etc). This group is also called bourgeoisie.  
  • Crafspeople and shopkeepers
  • The farmers in rural areas and poorly-paid labourers in the cities.  

Slide 5 - Tekstslide

Estates-based society
  • Lowest layer had to work hard (especially the farmers).
  • Many farmers only owned small pieces of land or leased (rented) land from landlords. 
  • After payment of rent and taxes, there was little left for themselves.

Slide 6 - Tekstslide

Estates-based society
  • Although some members of the 3rd estate (bourgeoisie) were rich they had no say in government.
  • Couldn't get an important function in Church, administration or army.

Slide 7 - Tekstslide

What is an estate-based society?
A society in which there's great equality
A society divided into estates
A society that revolved around religion
A society ruled by clerics

Slide 8 - Quizvraag

How many estates were there in 18th century France?
1 estate
2 estates
3 estates
4 estates

Slide 9 - Quizvraag

What were the three estates in 18th century France?
Clergy, nobility, 3rd estate (soldiers)
Soldiers, nobility, 3rd estate (citizens/workers/farmers)
Clergy, nobility, 3rd estate (citizens/workers/farmers)

Slide 10 - Quizvraag

Only the 1st and 2nd estates had privileges:
  • Only the nobility could get high positions in the Church, administration and army. 
  • The 1st and 2nd estates didn't have to pay taxes, but could collect taxes. 
  • The 1st and 2nd estates had their own court of justice. 

Slide 11 - Tekstslide

Duties of the 3rd estate:
  • Farmers had to work at least 1 day a week for the 1st and 2nd estates free of charge (= feudal services / servile duties).
  • People from the 3rd estate had to pay taxes.
  • People from the 3rd estate would receive more severe punishments when they committed a crimes than the 1st and 2nd estates. 

Slide 12 - Tekstslide

  • The 3rd estate was the only estate that paid taxes.
  • The payment of taxes led to big problems.
  • When taxes on food were increased, food became very expensive: problem for the poor!
  • When harvests failed, farmers still had to pay taxes.
  • Wealthy citizens (bourgeoisie) could afford to pay the taxes, but wanted a say in government in return. 

Slide 13 - Tekstslide

Which of the three estates was treated in a inequal manner?
the 1st estate
the 2nd estate
the 3rd estate

Slide 14 - Quizvraag

With estates had mostly rights and very few duties?
The farmers, citizens and nobility
The clergy and nobility
The clergy, the farmers and citizens
The citizens, clergy and nobility

Slide 15 - Quizvraag

"We do pay taxes, but have no say in government. That is unfair! "
To which group does this statement belong?
Wealthy citizens

Slide 16 - Quizvraag

The Enlightenment
(De Verlichting)

Period (1650-1800) in which religion and tradition give way to logical and rational reasoning. Enlightened citizens were critical about the Church, government and society and wanted to improve them.

Slide 17 - Tekstslide

Confidence in science
  • The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century had led to new inventions and discoveries. 
  • Logical (rational) thinking and experimentation led to new knowledge.
  • People gained more confidence in the human mind ('ratio'). 
  • Would lead to more and more knowledge and logical explanations.
  • More knowledge would 'enlighten' mankind.

Slide 18 - Tekstslide

Confidence in science
  • The Enlightenment led to new ideas about God.
  • Enlightened thinkers believed that God had created the earth and man, but that he no longer interfered with his creation.
  • The world worked according to natural laws (for example Newton's law of universal gravitation).
  • There were logical explanations for disasters (wasn't God's punishment).
  • By using logical thinking instead of accepting everything the Church or government said, people could overcome superstition (be 'enlightened').

Slide 19 - Tekstslide

A new society
  • The Enlightenment caused people to think differently about society. Society could be improved by using the mind ('social engineering'). 
  • Education important to improve society.
  • Important aspects:
  1. Religious
  2. Social
  3. Political
  4. Economic (not required)

Slide 20 - Tekstslide

Slide 21 - Video

A new society
  • Church criticism (persecutions and ban on other religions). Religious truth couldn't be proven by means of scientific evidence. 
  • Religious tolerance = No punishments for believing something different. Acceptance with regard to other religions.
  • Separation of Church and state = The Church shouldn't interfere with government and the state couldn't interfere in religious matters. 

Slide 22 - Tekstslide

A new society
  • Criticism of inequality of the (estate-based) society. All were born with natural rights. Rights everybody has from birth. Nobody is allowed to violate the rights of others, such as the right to freedom, health and property.
  • Freedom, for example the freedom of speech, press freedom, freedom of religion or freedom of trade.
  • Equality, for example equality before law, gender equality, equality for slave and non-slave or even abolition of slavery. 

Slide 23 - Tekstslide

A new society
Criticism of absolutism. Led to abuse of power and was based on religion.

John Locke
  • King was given power by the people.
  • Duty of the king: protect the rights of the people.
  • If the king didn't perform well, the people were
      allowed to rebel.

Slide 24 - Tekstslide

A new society
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • People shouldn't give power to the king.
  • Power should always lie with people (democracy).
  • Against absolutism.

Charles de Montesquieu
Separation of powers ('Trias Politica'): 
Power had to be divided into three parts (legislative, executive and

Slide 25 - Tekstslide

A new society
Legislative power
  • Parliament (representative assembly)
  • Make rules and laws

Executive power
  • King and ministers (government)
  • Carry out rules and laws

Judicial power 
  • Judges
  • Issue punishments when people don't comply with rules and laws.

Slide 26 - Tekstslide

The rulers' responses
Absolute monarchs and churches weren't happy with enlightend ideas.
  • Banned books that criticised the government or the Church. 
       Censorship = government's ban on the disclosure of, for example, texts, 
       plays and pieces of music.
  • Enlightened thinkers were banished or imprisoned.

Yet kings and the Church couldn't stop the spread of enlightened ideas.

Slide 27 - Tekstslide

The rulers' responses
  • Enlightened ideas were popular among the bourgeoisie.
  • Met in coffee houses and salons to read and discuss.
  • Ideas spread through magazines and newspapers.
  • This is how a public opinion emerged.

Slide 28 - Tekstslide

Which sentence or sentences are correct?
1 Enlightened thinkers felt that people should decide themselves what to believe.
2 They were against religious tolerance.
3 They believed there was a logical explanation for everything.
4 Before the Enlightenment, almost everyone believed that God no longer intervened in life.
Sentences 1 and 3
Sentence 4
Sentences 1, 3 and 4
Sentences 2 and 3

Slide 29 - Quizvraag

Which enlightened thinker developed the 'Trias Politica'?
John Locke
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Charles de Montesquieu
Baruch Spinoza

Slide 30 - Quizvraag

Why is Trias Politica important?
It prevents abuse of power.
More people are involved in government.
The king receives help in the administration.
It leads to more equality.

Slide 31 - Quizvraag

Which sentences match enlightened thinkers?
1. If a ruler doesn't perform well, the ruler can be replaced by the people.
2. The power of the government should be divided among the government, parliament and judges.
3. A king doesn't have to answer for his actions to anyone.
4. The Church should have a say in government.
1 and 2
1 and 3
2 and 3
2 and 4

Slide 32 - Quizvraag

Which sentences match the Ancien Régime?
1. Every state should have a constitution which sets out the citizens right's and duties and government's organisation .
2. Rulers received their power from God.
3. Kings and ministers were given their power by the people.
4. The king is the law.
1 and 2
1 and 3
2 and 3
2 and 4

Slide 33 - Quizvraag

Get to work
What? See whiteboard.
How? Alone 
Help? Ask neighbour. Can't figure it out? Ask teacher. 
Time? Until the end of the lesson. 
Done? Learn terms and dates. Ask teacher. 

Slide 34 - Tekstslide