9.2E Hitler's Dictatorship -TEACH-2023

9.2E: Hitler's dictatorship

AGE 9. The Time of World Wars
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This lesson contains 37 slides, with text slides and 7 videos.

time-iconLesson duration is: 45 min

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9.2E: Hitler's dictatorship

AGE 9. The Time of World Wars

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In this lesson:
In 1933 Hitler became prime minister of the Weimar Republic.

1. Ending democracy:
He used the Reichstag Fire, new elections and the Enabling Act to end 

2. Ending opposition:
During the "Night of the Long Knives" Hitler purged his own party of critical people.
Without opposition, Hitler became Führer (leader): a dictator with absolute power.

3. Turning Germany into a totalitarian state (nazification):
                          - nazis controlled media and culture
                          - propaganda and cult of personality
                          - racial ideology, indoctrinate children / education
                          - terror: SS & Gestapo, concentration camps

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1924. Hitler in prison after a failed coup.

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Jan. 1933, Hitler is appointed "chancellor"....

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After 1929: Thanks to the crisis, Hitler’s party grew.

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Reichstag elections July 1932
Nazis (brown) are largest parties, but don't have an overall majority

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Jan. 1933, Hitler is appointed "chancellor"....

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...but the nazis don't have an overall a majority in parliament.
And that is what Hitler wants.

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When the Reichstag building is set on fire by a communist,
Hitler seizes the opportunity...

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Hitler declares communists state enemies and organises new elections, using propaganda and terror.

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the S.A. (Sturm Abteilung) = nazis in uniforms.
They arrest communists and intimidate voters

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Reichstag elections March 1933
Nazis (brown) , together with another nationalist party, have an overall majority

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With a majority support in parliament Hitler proposes a new law: 
the Enabling Act

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This law gives Hitler the power to rule without parliament!
Hitler now has dictatorial powers.

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To strengthen his power, Hitler needed to get rid of "critical" members of his own S.A. (sturmabteilung)

Ernst Röhm

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SA leaders wanted more political influence.
Hitler did not want to share any power.

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Hitler turns to his elite bodyguard troops: the SS to help him 

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During the "Night of the Long Knives" the SA is purged by the SS.
Hitler claims he has prevented an "SA coup".

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Four questions you must answer when you analyze a cartoon:

  1. What do you see? (elements & labels)
  2. What does it represent / stand for?
  3. What is the artist's message?
  4. What is the artist's POV (point of view)?

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SA members looking fearful in surrender
SA leaders, dead on the floor, killed by Hitler, who holds a smoking gun.
a smoking gun, indicating that Hitler just shot the men lying dead on the floor. A smoking gun is also a clear piece of evidence.
members of the Army and SS stand with their weapons pointing towards the SA members
 The caption ‘They salute with both hands now’ is a joke about the Nazi salute. The SA used to be fiercely loyal to Hitler, and so would salute him with the Nazi salute (with one hand). However, now they have both their hands up to Hitler in surrender, showing their powerlessness. 
On the floor, lies ‘Hitler’s unkept promises’, clearly discarded. This represents how Hitler betrayed the SA, as they had been led to believe that they would gain power alongside Hitler. 
Hitler (standing aggressively with an armband that reads: ’the double cross’- a pun about the swastika and Hitler’s betrayal)
Goering (who is dressed as a violent god of war, showing how the Nazis have abandoned democracy and now rule by terror)
Goebbels (shown as Hitler’s poodle, since in Britain, where this cartoon was published,he was seen to be cowardly and extremely loyal to Hitler). It was all three of these men that were responsible for this night, because Hitler asked Goering and Goebbels to compile a list of ‘disloyal SA members’,; this list formed the basis of those killed on the Night of the Long Knives.

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Two months later president Hindenburg dies.
He was the last remnant of the Weimar republic.

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Hitler succeeds Hindenburg, combines his office "chancellor" with 
that of "president" into a new title: FÜHRER

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Many opponents and "undesired" people are arrested and sent to concentration camps. 

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