# Content, Behavior, Conditions, Criterion

Objectives

Content, Behavior, Conditions, Criterion
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Slide 1: Slide
CURRICULUM

This lesson contains 35 slides, with interactive quizzes and text slides.

Lesson duration is: 40 min

## Items in this lesson

Objectives

Content, Behavior, Conditions, Criterion

#### Slide 1 -Slide

Audience
The student will..

#### Slide 2 -Slide

Content
• Describes the specific subject matter to be learned
• Be specific enough that anyone will understand the subject matter
• Be generic enough that the emphasis is on knowledge and skills that are important and applicable in a variety of contexts
• Examples:
• Add unlike fractions with common fractions between denominator
• Compare and contrast fables and fairy tales
• Nonexamples:
• Add fractions (not specific) answer fraction problems 1-7 on p. 42 (not materials free)
• Compare and contrast "The Lazy Princess and Lost in the woods"(not generic or materials-free)

#### Slide 3 -Slide

Objective
Students will write answers to 20 subtraction problems (two-digit numbers from three-digit numbers with regrouping) with no no errors, on a worksheet.

#### Slide 4 -Slide

What is the content in the above objective?

#### Slide 5 -Open question

Which content components are correct ?
timer
1:00
A
Students will write adjectives for 10 animals and plants from the rainforest unit.
B
Students will list the six steps for treating a burn as recommended by the American Red Cross, from memory.
C
Given a chapter in a notebook, student's will construct a concept map that includes all main heading s and subheadings.
D

#### Slide 6 -Quiz

Demonstrate your ability to write an example of the "Content" component of an objective.

#### Slide 7 -Open question

Behavior(Verb/Bloom's)
What students will do to demonstrate their learning.
Write it as an observable verb so outcomes can be measured.

What is the behavior in each of the following, type them on the next slide.
• Given 10 incomplete sentences, students will rewrite each as a complete sentence that includes a subject and a predicate.
• Students will demonstrate all five steps of the “accepting no for an answer” social skill in a role-play.

#### Slide 8 -Slide

What is the behavior in the following

#### Slide 9 -Open question

Suggestions when writing the Behavior
1. Decide whether you want students to “identify” or “produce” as you write the behavior component in objectives (Howell and Nolet 2000).
• A lesson for teaching students to produce or write metaphors will be quite different from a lesson for teaching students to identify or recognize metaphors someone else has written.
2. Include only one or two required behaviors in an objective.
• Objectives that include many behaviors (e.g., students will research, write, draw, and present) make evaluation confusing and often end up being descriptions of activities or assignments rather than learning outcomes.
3. Consider including alternate behaviors (e.g., write, type, or say) to provide the flexibility to allow all students, including those with disabilities, to be successful (see Photo 2.2).
• This is an excellent way to incorporate the principles of universal design for learning or to differentiate instruction.

#### Slide 10 -Slide

Behavior suggestions continued
4. Leave out nonessential or redundant behaviors. For example,
• In the objective, “Students will copy the sentences and circle all nouns,” omit “copy the sentences.” It has nothing to do with the skill of identifying nouns.
• In the objective, “Students will locate and point to …,” omit “locate.” If the student is pointing to something, then you can assume he has located it.

5. Omit “be able to” as in the example, “The student will be able to make a speech …” The phrase adds words but no meaning. Remember that the performance is important, not an assumed ability or inability.

6. Do not use the phrase, “Student will pass a test on …” It does not communicate specific information about what the student will do or learn.

7. Write objectives for what the students will do, not what the teacher will do. Objectives may be written for one student or a group of students.

#### Slide 11 -Slide

Conditions(performance)

It is important to describe the conditions—circumstances, situation, or setting—in which the student will perform the behavior.
The condition component provides additional specificity about what the student will learn.
This component describes the conditions that will apply when the student is being evaluated, rather than the learning condition that describes the circumstances or setting in which the learning occurred.
In the objective given in Example 2.3, the students must write answers to 20 subtraction problems, with the condition “on a worksheet,” not in a real-world context such as “in a check register.”

#### Slide 12 -Slide

Conditions
Notice that the italicized conditions in the following objectives result in three different learning outcomes. They affect the level of difficulty of the objective and, thus, the lesson and practice activities that you need to plan for your students.
• Students will write the capitals of each of the 17 western states given a list of the states and a list of the capitals. (They must recognize state capitals. This is really a matching task.)
• Students will write the capitals of each of the 17 western states given a list of the states. (They must recall the state capitals rather than simply recognize them.)
• Students will write the capitals of each of the 17 western states on a blank outline map. (They must recall the names and locations of the states and the names of the capitals in order to write the capitals in the correct places.)

#### Slide 13 -Slide

Types of Conditions
Types of Conditions
Various types of conditions may be included in objectives.  A very important condition is whether we are asking students to perform a skill in isolation, in context, or in artificial or real-world circumstances.
This is important to think about when sequencing objectives and when planning for generalization or transfer of the skill. The information or materials provided—often called the “givens”—may be important to specify.
Visualize the evaluation or testing situation and what the students will have available.
A third type of condition—a description of the setting or situation—may help clarify the objective as well, especially social skill and learning strategy objectives. Obviously, all conditions need not be mentioned (e.g., the lights will be on in the room).
include those that communicate important information about the learning outcome.
You may want to specify whether the student is going to solve mixed math problems or correct mixed grammar errors. Otherwise, you may only be evaluating whether students can figure out the pattern (e.g., all problems require regrouping or all sentences are missing a question mark).

• Pronounce words when shown flash cards or in a story
Information or materials provided
• Given an incomplete proof
• Given population figures for each country
• With a calculator, ruler, scale
• From memory, with nothing provided
Setting or situation
• When given directions
• In the lunchroom
• During teacher presentations
• When teased; when angry; when refused
A combination of conditions
• Given 10 problems and a calculator
• Given eight map terms (key) and a dictionary
Independently or with assistance
• With or without reminders
• With or without physical assistance
• With or without verbal cues
Nonexamples of Conditions
Describing the learning condition rather than the evaluation condition
Avoid using conditions such as:
• As a result of my instruction …
• Given a lesson on …
• After completing the weather unit …
• After studying …
It doesn’t matter where or when the students learned the knowledge or skill. Remember that objectives focus on outcomes.
Avoid using conditions such as:
• When asked by the teacher …
• Given a blank piece of paper …
Some conditions are obvious and do not need to be written.
Selecting conditions at random from lists of examples
Incorporate conditions that reflect important decisions about how learning will be measured.
The Condition Component within Objectives
• Before turning in seatwork assignments, students will write a heading on their papers that includes name, subject, period, and date, on eight consecutive assignments.
• Given six topics receiving attention during the congressional campaign (such as end-of-life issues), students will explain in writing how each candidate would likely vote on the issue (explanation must include a rationale supported by facts).

#### Slide 14 -Slide

Conditions to meet needs of students
In some cases—for example, when writing objectives for students with severe disabilities or for very young students—it may be important to specify whether students will be performing the behavior independently. Note that the “default” condition typically is without assistance.

#### Slide 15 -Slide

Examples of Conditions
In isolation or in context
• Compute measurement equivalents on a worksheet or while following a recipe
• Respond to teasing in a role-play or on the playground
• Correct punctuation errors in given sentences or while proofreading an essay
• Pronounce words when shown flash cards or in a story
Information or materials provided
• Given an incomplete proof
• Given population figures for each country
• With a calculator, ruler, scale
• From memory, with nothing provided
Setting or situation
• When given directions
• In the lunchroom
• During teacher presentations

#### Slide 16 -Slide

Examples of conditions
• When teased; when angry; when refused
A combination of conditions
• Given 10 problems and a calculator
• Given eight map terms (key) and a dictionary
Independently or with assistance
• With or without reminders
• With or without physical assistance
• With or without verbal cues

#### Slide 17 -Slide

Nonexamples of Conditions
Describing the learning condition rather than the evaluation condition
Avoid using conditions such as:
• As a result of my instruction …
Given a lesson on …
• After completing the weather unit …
• After studying …
It doesn’t matter where or when the students learned the knowledge or skill. Remember at objectives focus on outcomes.
Avoid using conditions such as:
• When asked by the teacher …
• Given a blank piece of paper …
Some conditions are obvious and do not need to be written.
Selecting conditions at random from lists of examples
Incorporate conditions that reflect important decisions about how learning will be measured.

#### Slide 18 -Slide

Do you know the condition?
The Condition Component within Objectives:
• Before turning in seatwork assignments, students will write a heading on their papers that includes name, subject, period, and date, on eight consecutive assignments.

• Given six topics receiving attention during the congressional campaign (such as end-of-life issues), students will explain in writing how each candidate would likely vote on the issue (explanation must include a rationale supported by facts).

Write the condition on the next slide

#### Slide 19 -Slide

Do you know the condition?

#### Slide 20 -Open question

Criteria(Degree)

The criterion component:
• Specifies the level of acceptable performance,
• the standard of mastery,
• or the proficiency level expected.
This component describes how well (i.e., how accurately, fluently, frequently, or consistently) the students should perform in order to say that they have met the objective. In the objective given in Example 2.3, the criterion is “with no errors.”

#### Slide 21 -Slide

Common errors when writing criteria
1. The criterion is too low.
• Keep high performance standards, especially for basic skills in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
• Do not confuse setting criteria in objectives with assigning grades. It will take some students longer to reach an objective. You may want to set gradually increasing criteria—50 percent accuracy by October 1; 75 percent accuracy by November 1; 100 percent accuracy by December 1. However, be sure that the final outcome is high enough. If a student is only 80 percent accurate on number recognition, she is doomed to failure in arithmetic.
2. The criterion is set arbitrarily.
• Do not make the error of automatically writing 85 percent accuracy for every objective.
• Set realistic standards and time limits.
• Establish criteria either by doing the task yourself or by having a successful peer do the task. Do not write: “… will say the multiples of 10 from 10 to 100 in 3 minutes” or “… locate a word in the online dictionary in 5 minutes.” Try it! If it took you 5 minutes to find a word, you would never choose to use an online dictionary.

#### Slide 22 -Slide

Common errors continued
3. “Percent accuracy” is misused.
• When there are many possible divergent or complex responses, percent accuracy as the criterion does not make sense. One cannot write a story with 100 percent accuracy nor manage anger with 80 percent accuracy.
• There needs to be a number of responses for percent accuracy to be sensible—not simply correct or incorrect. For example, choose “name the state you live in” or “correctly name the state you live in,” rather than “name the state you live in with 100 percent accuracy.” Write “turn off the computer correctly” or “without damaging anything” rather than “turn off the computer with 100 percent accuracy.” Sometimes “percent accuracy” works, but it would be too much work to compute. To decide if someone reached 85 percent accuracy in punctuating a story, you would first have to count all of the opportunities for punctuation within the story.
4. There’s no end in sight.
If the objective is for the student to spell words correctly in all written work, when would you be able to say that a student had met this objective? At the end of his life?

#### Slide 23 -Slide

Suggestions when Writing the Criterion
1. Think about how many times you want the students to demonstrate the skill during evaluation to be confident that they have met the objective.
• For example, do they need to write their addresses five times to prove they can do it? If Jorge responds to teasing appropriately during one recess, are you sure he has learned that skill?
2. Be specific enough so that any evaluator would reach the same conclusion as to whether the student meets the objective.
•  Avoid vague criteria such as “Student will write descriptive sentences.”
• This criterion is not specific enough to determine if the objective of the lesson has been met.
• The following two sentences cannot be evaluated reliably using this criterion: “The bike is big,” and “Perched on the seat of the bike, I felt like Hillary on the peak of Everest."
3. Make sure the criterion addresses the skill you want.
• For example, if the skill you are looking for is writing descriptively, don’t write your criterion as “all words need to be spelled correctly.” Do not write a criterion solely because it is easy to think of. In attempting to make the objective specific and measurable, don’t end up making it trivial!

#### Slide 24 -Slide

Examples of Criteria
As a total number or proportion
• Comparing or contrasting four key issues
• With 10 out of 10 correct
• With 90 percent accuracy
In terms of time
• Within 10 minutes; per minute
• The first time
• For five consecutive days
As a variation
• Within plus or minus 1 inch
• Within 1 percent
• To the closest hundredth

#### Slide 25 -Slide

Examples of Criteria
As a description or result
• Until consensus is reached
• Story includes a conflict and resolution
The strategy selected solves the problem in the fewest steps

Using a combination of criteria
• 50 per minute with 100 percent accuracy by March 10
• Backing up opinion with data from three relevant research studies
• Paragraphs include topic sentences and at least three supporting details

#### Slide 26 -Slide

Nonexamples of Criteria
Does not pass the “stranger test”
• As judged by the teacher
• To teacher’s satisfaction
These obviously do not pass the “stranger test” (Kaplan et al 2017)—that is, they are open to interpretation. A stranger may not interpret them the same way as you do.

Remember that one of the purposes of writing objectives is to communicate clearly with students, families, and other teachers and professionals.

#### Slide 27 -Slide

The Criterion Component within Objectives
• Given addition problems with sums no greater than 18, students will write 40 correct sums in no more than 1 minute.

• In a debate, the student will argue for one side of a controversial issue (e.g., capital punishment) and provide three reasons supported with facts for that position.
Write the criteria for each on the next slide.

#### Slide 28 -Slide

What is the criteria?

#### Slide 29 -Open question

Practice
1. Study the component names and definitions. Paraphrase them.
2. Review the lists of component examples. Explain why each example fits the definition. Create your own examples.
3. Practice writing your own objectives. You may wish to use the objective scaffold (see Figure 2.2).
a. Think of a general instructional goal, such as:
• Know how to use an index.
• Learn baseball skills.
• Understand cell division.
• Distinguish between fact and fiction.

#### Slide 30 -Slide

Practice

• Resolve conflicts nonviolently.
• Do homework.

#### Slide 31 -Slide

b.  Specify the content (e.g., “index” becomes “subject index” in textbook).
c. Specify the behavior (e.g., “know how to use” becomes “locate page numbers for topics”).
d.  Add necessary conditions (e.g., “given a textbook and a list of topics”).
e. Add criteria (e.g., “no errors, within 30 seconds”).
(Notice that there are many possibilities for each component. You may wish to practice writing a variety of objectives on one topic.)
f. Put the components together into a one- or two-sentence objective. For example, “Given a textbook and a list of topics, the student will locate page numbers for topics in the textbook’s subject index with no errors, within 30 seconds.”
g. Examine your objective for clarity and conciseness, and rewrite as necessary. For example, “Given a textbook, the student will write the correct page number from the index for four out of four listed topics within 2 minutes.”

#### Slide 32 -Slide

Does your objective include the following:

Are all four components present? Label them. ✅
Is each component correct? ✅
Content specific? Generic? Materials-free? ✅ Behavior observable?✅ Evaluation condition described?✅ Criterion specific? Measurable? ✅ Realistic?✅
Does the objective need editing? Is it wordy? Is it awkward?✅
Does it pass the stranger test?✅
Does it represent an important learning outcome?✅

This chart can be found in the Professional Resource download for Chapter 2.

#### Slide 33 -Slide

LABEL EACH PART OF THE FOLLOWING MEASURABLE OBJECTIVES
• Given 10 sets of five pictures, four of which are related (e.g., belong to the same category, such as vegetables or tools), students will point to the one in each set that does not belong, without error (lesson objective).

• Students will correctly state temperatures, with an accuracy of plus or minus 1 degree, shown on pictures of five thermometers depicting temperatures between 220 degrees Fahrenheit and 95 degrees Fahrenheit (lesson objective).

• Randi will write correct answers to five of five inference questions on a grade-level reading passage (IEP objective).

• Students will return the change from \$1.00, using the fewest possible coins, for four purchases, with no errors (unit objective).

#### Slide 34 -Slide

LABEL EACH PART OF THE FOLLOWING MEASURABLE OBJECTIVES
• When the fire alarm sounds for a fire drill, Mr. Springsteen’s class will form a line within 30 seconds and leave the building following the correct route, without teacher prompting (lesson objective).

• Katie and Caleb will correctly compute the amount of wallpaper needed to cover a wall of given dimensions (lesson objective).

• When teased by peers, Fadia will respond by ignoring, walking away, or quietly asking the person to stop in eight out of eight observed opportunities by May 1 (IEP objective).

• Michael will complete all of his independent seatwork assignments during class with at least 90 percent accuracy for two consecutive weeks (IEP objective).