6.1 New energy sources

AGE 8. The Time of Citizens and Steam Engines
6.1 The Industrial Revolution

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This lesson contains 39 slides, with interactive quizzes, text slides and 2 videos.

time-iconLesson duration is: 45 min

Items in this lesson

AGE 8. The Time of Citizens and Steam Engines
6.1 The Industrial Revolution

Slide 1 - Slide

Slide 2 - Slide

What do you already know about the Industrial Revolution? Name at least 3 things.

Slide 3 - Mind map

the Time of Citizens and Steam Engines
1800 - 1900
Typical Aspects:

-Democracy and a parliamentary system
-the Industrial Revolution
-Modern Imperialism
-Liberalism,Nationalism, Socialism and Feminism

The Modern Age

Slide 4 - Slide

the Time of Citizens and Steam Engines
1800 - 1900
The nineteenth century is also called the Age of Citizens and Steam engines. In this age, an event of great importance occurred: the Industrial Revolution. With its roots in Britain, this revolution spread all over the world and triggered innumerable changes in people’s daily lives.
You will also learn about how tough life was in cities and child labour. During this age, citizens gained more influence in politics and European nations fought bloody wars for riches and power. In the battles they used their highly advanced weapons to conquer big parts of the world.

Typical Aspects:

-Democracy and a parliamentary system
-the Industrial Revolution
-Modern Imperialism
-Liberalism,Nationalism, Socialism and feminism

The Modern Age

Slide 5 - Slide

What is this lesson about?
An agricultural revolution in England led to a population growth. This growth triggered a high demand for clothes, which inspired entrepreneurs to invest money in new inventions for spinning. These inventions led to the industrial revolution in which machines in factories had taken over manual labour at home. Fossil fuels were burned to produce steam power. The promise of work in a factory brought people to the cities.

Slide 6 - Slide


Slide 7 - Video

State at least 3 differences between the life of people in 1820 and 1920

Slide 8 - Open question

What will you learn (to do)

  1. that during the industrial revolution, work became mechanised and factories were built to house steam engines
  2. that industrialisation led to the growth of cities
  3. describe the difference between European civilisation before and after the Industrial Revolution
  4. explain why this revolution started in Britain
  5. explain how a steam engine works
  6. explain how cities changed because of the industrialisation

Slide 9 - Slide

People in this lesson
James Watt
Richard Arkwright
James Hargreaves
Queen Victoria

Slide 10 - Slide

Word Duty


Industrial revolution: a radical change in which manual labour was replaced by machines

Modern age: the period in time from 1800 up to now

Entrepreneurs: persons who start or run a business with the goal of making profit

Steam power: an energy source that is derived from heating water; steam is the gas phase of water

Factories: large buildings in which machines are operated to make a product

Services: a work sector in which people offer their service in exchange for money; other sectors are agriculture and industry

Slide 11 - Slide

Important dates in this lesson:

1712: first steam engine

1750 - 1900: Industrial Revolution

1837 - 1901: Victorian Age

Slide 12 - Slide


Between 1750 and 1900, Europe and North America changed drastically. Steam engines began to be used to do work instead of manual labour, the locomotive was invented, bridges were built from iron and electric light was developed. These are just some examples of all the changes that occurred during the Industrial Revolution, a fast and radical change, that had its roots in Great Britain. A new era started: the Modern Age.

Slide 13 - Slide

1. Write down the correct definition of a revolution.

Slide 14 - Open question

A world changing revolution

Before the Industrial Revolution, people lived in an agricultural-urban society. Work was done by manual labour or with the help of animal power such as oxen or horses. Craftsmen used their hands and tools to make products. Travel was by foot, horse, coach or sailing boat, and light only came from the sun or fire. Medicine was not as advanced as today and it was not available to the masses. However, this changed from 1750 onwards, when the Industrial Revolution began in Britain. Why did it start there? One reason is that Britain had favourable conditions: there were lots of natural resources and a great number of inhabitants were interested in technology and progress. The country also had many harbours to ship goods from. But the most important reason is found in agriculture. Since the 17th century, an agricultural revolution occurred in Britain. The use of new techniques and investment in farming led to an agricultural surplus. Because of the abundance of food, the population grew from 5.5 million to 15.9 million people between 1700 and 1840. A bigger population meant that there was a higher demand for products, especially clothes.

steam power would soon be used for transportation. 
  1. write down the title of this paragraph
  2. the first half of the text mentions 2 main areas that changed because of the  Industrial Revolution. 
  3. What other changes are mentioned?
(Can you now see how the title covers the content?)

Slide 15 - Slide

2. Explain why the industrial revolution can still be considered a revolution despite the fact that it lasted about 150 years.

Slide 16 - Open question

3. The industrial revolution started in:
Great Britain

Slide 17 - Quiz

4. Before the industrial revolution, most people worked in:
rural areas

Slide 18 - Quiz

5. Which statement is true?

I. In Britain, an agricultural revolution occurred before the industrial revolution.
II. The agricultural revolution led to an abundance of food.
Both statements are true.
Both statements are false
Statement I is false and statement II is true.
Statement I is true and statement II is false.

Slide 19 - Quiz

6. Three reasons why the revolution started in Britain are written down below. Explain for each, why it contributed to this revolution:
1 There were a lot of natural resources:
2 Many harbours:
3 The population growth due to improvements in agriculture

Slide 20 - Open question

8. How did the Agricultural Revolution lead to the Industrial Revolution?
higher demand for products
agricultural surplus
steam engine developed
new farming techniques
new inventions needed
population growth

Slide 21 - Drag question

Why did the revolution start in Britain?

There are multiple reasons why Britain was the first country to become industrialised. There were a lot of natural resources and people in this country were interested in technology and progress. There were many harbours to ship goods, but the most important reason is found in agriculture.
Since the seventeenth century, an agricultural revolution occurred in Britain. Here, farmers used new techniques and investment in farming led to an agricultural surplus. Because of the abundance of food, the population in Britain grew. It is estimated that in 1700 there were 5.5 million people, but in 1801 there were 9.3 million and in 1841 it grew to 15.9 million a growth of 60% in just 40 years. More people meant there was a higher demand for products, especially clothes.
Before the industrial revolution, clothes were made by farmers at home, who needed the extra income. But because of the population growth, they could not work their spinning wheels fast enough to satisfy the high demand.

 In the 19th century the most dramatic changes were witnessed in rural areas, where the provincial landscape often became urban and industrialised. Painting by August von Wille (1870).

  1. write down the title of this paragraph (Now you know what question is answered in this paragraph)
  2. the second sentence mentions the main reasons. Write them down.
  3. From the word "Since" the text focusses on one particular reason. Which one?
  4. The most important words are: new techniques - agricultural surplus - population growth - more demand for products - homeworkers could not work fast enough. Write this in a coherent sentence.

Slide 22 - Slide

Triggered by textile

Before the Industrial Revolution clothes were made by small scale textile workers, but also by farmers at home. The farmers needed the extra income that it brought. Because of the population Because of the population growth, they could not work their spinning wheels fast enough to satisfy the high demand. Inventors were inspired by this problem and entrepreneurs saw opportunities to make money. New inventions were made to increase textile production more and more. One of the first machines was called the Spinning Jenny, which was eventually able to increase the spinning speed up to a hundred and twenty times. It was an affordable device, but it still had to be run by hand and the threads broke easily.
Later machines worked on waterpower and did not need a lot of manpower, but the rivers did not always flow that well; so waterpower was not always reliable. To solve this problem, a new energy source was further developed: steam power. In 1712 the first real steam engine was used to pump water from a mine, but it became popular for more industries after James Watt made an adapted version. The steam engines worked on water and coal. The coal was burned to heat up water in order to produce steam. Its rotary movement revolutionised industry. But steam engines were so large that they had to be placed in special halls called factories. Workers were still needed to operate the machines and began to live close to the factories.

Top: Using the Spinning Jenny increased spinning speed multiple times. Wood engraving c. 1880.
Bottom: Interior of a cotton factory showing use of child labour (nineteenth century).

  1. write down the title of this paragraph 
  2. why were new inventions made?
  3. Which 2 inventions are mentioned? What problem did they solve?
  4. why was steam power further developed? 

Slide 23 - Slide

7. The industrial revolution was boosted by the introduction of a new energy source, namely:
water power
steam power
sun power
wind power

Slide 24 - Quiz


Slide 25 - Video

vertical motion
rotary motion

Slide 26 - Drag question

12. Look at the map . Why were these first industrial
cities built at the locations you see on the map?

Slide 27 - Open question

10. Below you see three important inventions from this age and
some problems these machines had in the beginning. Make the correct connections between each machine, its picture and its problem. 
Spinning Jenny
The Waterframe
The Steam engine
First models sometimes exploded.
Threads could easily break.
Needs water to work properly. 

Slide 28 - Drag question

A revolution in transportation

The Industrial Revolution triggered a tidal wave of inventions in transport and communication and led to new architectonic developments. One of the biggest changes in transport was the invention of the steam locomotive. The first model was developed in 1808, and over the following decades, railways were built all over Europe and North America. Trains brought products and people to different areas of a country and stimulated industrial growth. They transported fossil fuels, which made it possible to build factories in many places and not just close to mines or waterways. At sea, steamships gradually replaced sailing ships. Captains on ocean or riverboats no longer had to depend on good wind or strong currents, which made travel faster and the world smaller. The bicycle was another significant invention; faster than walking and more practical than the train, it made it possible for ordinary people to travel longer distances.

 Inside a nineteenth century iron factory. Painting by Adolph Menzel (1875).
  1. Write down the title of this paragraph 
  2. What were 2 effects of industrialisation?
  3. Why did cities grow? (what is this called?)

Slide 29 - Slide

Slide 30 - Slide

Slide 31 - Slide

Look at the map . Why were these first rail ways built
at the locations you see on the map?

Slide 32 - Open question

Cast iron and electricity

Besides new methods of transportation, the Industrial Revolution also set off the start of the production of steel buildings. The first real example of this was the Iron Bridge built in 1781 to cross the River Severn in England. It was celebrated as a technological wonder. The iron bridge proved that cast iron could be used to build, and this encouraged more architects to build in this way. The Crystal Palace in London and the Eiffel Tower in Paris are examples of cast iron buildings. When the Eiffel Tower was built in 1889, it was the tallest building in the world. This wonder of iron engineering gave Gustav Eiffel the nickname ‘magician of iron.’ As many as 10,000 gas lamps were lit during the inauguration and blue-white-red beacon lights lit up the city. These were later replaced by electric lighting, another invention that emerged during the Industrial Revolution. Alessandro Volta was the first to control this power by building a battery. The use of electricity as an energy source led to more inventions, such as the telegraph, the telephone, the microphone and the lightbulb.

family living in a one room apartment
  1. This paragraph is just a summing up of bad living conditions of city workers. You might write down some key words.
  2. What was the effect of  bad hygiene in the cities?

Slide 33 - Slide

Listen to the story of the first iron bridge in France. What is not a reason why gradually more and more iron bridges were built?
saving money
saving weight
saving time
better strength

Slide 34 - Quiz

Families in the factories

The wages that labourers received were not enough to pay for rent and food. It was just barely enough to live in the city. For this reason, a family could only survive if the mother and children also worked. Children could not play or go to school to improve their knowledge or skills, so their situation could not improve. Men and women operated the machines, while children did work as chimney sweeps or had to crawl into narrow spaces in mines or under machines to pick up cotton.

19th century London was also a city of poverty, where millions lived in overcrowded and unsanitary slums. Wood engraving by Gustave Doré (1872).

  1. Write down the title of this paragraph 
  2. Why did whole families need to work?

Slide 35 - Slide

Were the statements below causes
 or effects of the Industrial Revolution?
Factories were built to house the big, new machines.
Entrepreneurs were willing to invest in new inventions.
Homeworkers could now work much faster than before.
The first machines led to unemployment of homeworkers.

growth of cities

population growth

Slide 36 - Drag question

Drag and drop to finish this overview. 
candles / oil lamps
Modern Age
horses / walking
steam locomotive
agricultural urban society

Slide 37 - Drag question

That's it! You're done! Great job! Do you still have any questions?

Slide 38 - Open question


Slide 39 - Slide