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Writing_V4

Writing Tips - part 1
                                                                  
  1. Write at least 200 words about each novel
  2. Use paragraphs - one topic per paragraph (or: if there is  for example only one theme, tie theme and symbolism together)
  3. Use a white line inbetween paragraphs.
  4. Fill out the lines from left to right (no blank spaces)

  5. Give the title,  authors and date of publication for both novels (title in capital letters in italics or inbetween "quotation marks")
  6. On the test, find the specific task for your novel (could be: symbolism, or theme, or development of main characters etc.)
  7. If you don't have a specific task for your novel, you may expect a general task in which you analyse your novel, for example for  the title of the novel (explain this), the development of the main characters, plot, symbolism, theme, irony. Find out about your novel beforehand by looking up information on these aspects. For some aspects you will be able to find more information than for others.


NB irony will be explained in the next slide

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        Slide 1: Tekstslide

        In deze les zitten 13 slides, met tekstslides.

        Onderdelen in deze les

        Writing Tips - part 1
                                                                          
        1. Write at least 200 words about each novel
        2. Use paragraphs - one topic per paragraph (or: if there is  for example only one theme, tie theme and symbolism together)
        3. Use a white line inbetween paragraphs.
        4. Fill out the lines from left to right (no blank spaces)

        5. Give the title,  authors and date of publication for both novels (title in capital letters in italics or inbetween "quotation marks")
        6. On the test, find the specific task for your novel (could be: symbolism, or theme, or development of main characters etc.)
        7. If you don't have a specific task for your novel, you may expect a general task in which you analyse your novel, for example for  the title of the novel (explain this), the development of the main characters, plot, symbolism, theme, irony. Find out about your novel beforehand by looking up information on these aspects. For some aspects you will be able to find more information than for others.


        NB irony will be explained in the next slide

              Slide 1 - Tekstslide

              Irony
              There are 3 types of irony in literature (novels/poetry):                                                                  


              1. dramatic irony = the reader knows what is going to happen, but the main character(s) in the story doesn't (don't) 
              2. situational irony = when something different happens (in the novel/poem) from what is expected by the reader
              3. verbal irony = when someone says or writes something that is in opposition to the person’s true meaning (for example: "What a beautiful dress!" But it is in fact an awful looking dress)


              Find out if there is a type of irony (dramatic, situational, verbal) in your novel. For example, the novel "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night time" definitely contains irony!

                  Slide 2 - Tekstslide

                  Writing Tips - part 2
                  •  Keep the use of "I" to a minimum: use this to give your own personal recommendation. 


                  • Use linking words to connect paragraphs and sentences for coherence (clear and logical sequence of paragraphs & sentences) For example: Also, another example, moreover etc.

                  • Use synynoms (a different word meaning the same thing) for word variety and interesting reading

                  • If you can leave out "that" (if it is not the subject of the subclause) -> leave it out! Too many "thats"  make your sentence less well-flowing.

                  • See if you can combine 2 sentences into one by using a relative pronoun or a linking word. 
                         For example: The story is about two boys, Jack and John. They escape from a burning house. 
                          -> The story is about two boys, Jack and John, who escape from a burning house
                         For example: The story has two themes. The first theme is revenge. The other theme is the desire for power.
                          -> The story has two themes of which the first one is revenge, while the other one is the desire for power.

                    Slide 3 - Tekstslide

                    General Writing Tips - part 3


                        • Check the tenses (werkwoordtijden) of your sentences. Be consistent in the use of tense (Present Simple or Past Simple). Using the present simple to describe your novel, theme, symbolism etcetera makes it more lively

                        • Make sure all your sentences have a subject and a verb (zorg ervoor dat in alle zinnen een onderwerp en persoonsvorm staan)

                        • Check spelling mistakes (were/we're/where;  there/they're/their;  capital letters for names/cities/countries etc.)

                        • Check capital letters for personal names, names of cities, countries, months etc.

                        Slide 4 - Tekstslide

                        Linking words & Sentence combining

                        On the next slides you will find:


                        • linking words to link paragraphs and sentences for coherent (duidelijk/logisch) writing
                        • tips on how to combine two separate sentences into one, longer sentence

                        These are tips to improve your writing.
                        You may use these or ignore them for now if you find it too difficult!








                        Slide 5 - Tekstslide

                        Slide 6 - Tekstslide

                        Main clauses & Subordinate clauses
                        Main clause: sentence part with a subject, a verb and a finished thought
                        i.e. Jenny is ill, but her mother is even worse.


                        Subordinate clause: sentence part (which could have a subject and a verb) and an UNfinished thought
                        i.e.  Although he makes a nice living, he always wants to earn more.

                        Slide 7 - Tekstslide

                        Use coordinate conjunctions to connect 2 main clauses
                        For    (She wants to meet her again, for she is a good administrator)
                        And    (She is a good mother, and she has been a fantastic wife.)
                        Nor     (He never fights, nor does he ever get into any other kind of trouble)
                        But     (She always wants to win, but it is not always possible.)
                        Or       (We can meet online, or we can meet at school.)
                        Yet     (He wanted to stay clean, yet the drugs were too tempting.)



                        Coordinate conjunctions are preceded by a comma i.e. He saw her, and then left.

                        Slide 8 - Tekstslide

                        Use a subordinate conjunctions to connect a main clause to a sub clause(s)

                        after
                        although
                        as
                        because
                        before
                        even if
                        even though
                        if
                        in order that once
                        provided that
                        rather than
                        since
                        so that
                        Use a subordinate conjunctions to connect a main clause to a subclause(s) - continued

                        then
                        that
                        though
                        unless until
                        when
                        whenever
                        where
                        whereas
                        wherever
                        whether
                        while
                        why

                        Slide 9 - Tekstslide

                        Combine sentences - tip 1
                        Combine sentences by using a conjunction (to show logical connection)
                        Examples:

                        A) Mary was sick. She still went to work.
                        B) Although she was sick, Mary still went to work.

                        A) He didn't have a lot of money. He bought his children some nice presents.
                        B) He didn't have a lot of money,  yet he bought his children some nice presents.

                        A) He will meet you soon. First he has to take this call.
                        B) After he has finished this call, he will meet you.

                        A) I will always do my best. I may be ill, still I will do my best.
                        B) Even if I am ill, I will always do my best.

                        Slide 10 - Tekstslide

                        Combine sentences - tip 2
                        Combine sentences by using a gerund (verb + ing) 
                        Examples:
                        Gerunds:
                        A) Mary  doesn't do her homework. She is now behind in school
                        B) Not doing homework is why Mary is behind in school.

                        A) He makes a lot of money. That is the reason why Mark studied politics.
                        B) Making a lot of money is the reason Mark studied politics

                        A) There is one thing my brother hates most. This is when he has to do the dishes.
                        B) Doing the dishes is what my brother hates most.

                        A) I like to sleep in. Sometimes I even sleep in till noon.
                        B) Sleeping in, even till noon, is what I like.

                        Slide 11 - Tekstslide

                        Combine sentences - tip 3
                        Combine sentences by using a participle (verb 3rd form = voltooid deelwoord)
                        Examples:
                        Participles
                        A) Johnny was thrilled by the news. He ran over to his parents to tell them he had graduated.
                        B) Thrilled by the news he had graduated, Johnny ran over to his parents to tell them.

                        A) He was hurt by the divorce. He decided to never marry another woman again.
                        B) Hurt by the divorce, he decided to never marry another woman again

                        A) The girl was devastated by the news. She decided to call her best friend immediately.
                        B) Devastated by the news, the girl decided to call her best friend immediately.

                        A) This is guys is a real Frisian. He is born and bred in Harkema.
                        B) Born and bred in Harkema, he is a real Frisian.

                        Slide 12 - Tekstslide

                        Slide 13 - Tekstslide